Means "of two origins" or "created by mixing" or colloquially (sometimes also pejoratively) also mongrel, bastard or blendling. In scientific linguistic usage, this is understood to mean a living being (plant, animal) that has come into being by crossing parents of different breeding lines (genus = genus or species = species). Spontaneous crosses that occur in nature without human intervention are called natural hybrids, especially in the case of plants. In viticulture, hybrids are only the results of crosses between different species or genera. Strictly speaking, however, crosses of the same species are already hybrids (intraspecific = within the species). As a rule, however, only interspecific or intergeneric crosses are understood as hybrids.
In plants this does not look nearly as spectacular as in animals and is not immediately recognisable even to experts. This is quite different with hybrids in the animal world, the best known examples being mules (donkey mare x horse stallion), mules (horse mare x donkey stallion) and ligers (male lion x female tiger).
Hybrids in the viticultural sense are crosses between two different species. When they are crossed for the first time, they are called primary hybrids. As a rule, however, hybrids with American genes (e.g. Vitis cinerea, Vitis labrusca, Vitis riparia etc.) with the desired characteristics are crossed with a European cultivar (Vitis vinifera). The result is then secondary hybrids. Most of the varieties, some of which are resistant to phylloxera and fungus, were created towards the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Many have the intrusive foxy, which disqualifies them for winemaking, at least in Europe. These varieties created in the USA are called American hybrids, although they also contain European genes. These are Agawam, Albania, Alden, America, Blanc Du Bois, Campbell Early, Cayuga White, Clinton, Concord, Elvira, Delaware, Dutchess, Herbemont, Hopkins, Horizon, Iona, Isabella, Jacquez, Melody, Missouri Riesling, Munson, Niagara White, Norton, Noah, Orlando Seedless, Othello, Rubired, Taylor, Traminette and Vênus.
The partly complex crossbreeding products of the late 19th and early 20th century are called French hybrids, because especially in France, but also in other countries, attempts were made to alleviate the problem of vine decline caused by phylloxera by breeding phylloxera-resistant hybrid varieties for viticulture. Of course, American species had to be used in the process. Valuable help was provided by the US botanist Thomas Volney Munson (1843-1913) with regard to rootstocks, as well as the breeder Hermann Jaeger (1844-1895), who immigrated to Missouri from Switzerland, with regard to American hybrids, which were then used for crossing with European varieties.
There are uneven crosses of hybrid varieties with European vines of the species Vitis vinifera or other hybrid varieties (secondary hybrids or multihybrids). Examples include Aurore, Baco Blanc, Baco Noir, Bellandais, Cascade, Chambourcin, Chancellor, Chardonel, Chelois, Colobel, Couderc Noir, De Chaunac, Etoile I, Etoile II, Flot...
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