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About Lexicon Author Norbert Franz-Josef Tischelmayer

I was born in the Weinviertel region of Lower Austria - in the middle of vineyards, so to speak. My father worked at a large winery for decades. As a child, I regularly helped with the grape harvest. These were my first impulses to get involved with wine. However, I first got into electronic data processing (EDP), which was still in its infancy at the time, and then worked for 35 years as a manager in an EDP service company for banks and savings banks in the areas of computer centre, internal auditing, training and process organisation. During this time, I also managed several major projects in the areas of corporate mergers, rationalisation, process organisation and change management.

I came to wine relatively late. At the beginning of the 1990s, I was invited to a wine tasting event where I tasted around ten varieties under expert guidance with the necessary explanations. I learnt for the first time that you can enjoy wine not only with your palate and tongue, but also with your nose and eyes. This positive experience awakened my interest and I began to study the "divine drink" intensively - both practically and theoretically.

After several wine seminars, reading around 100 books on wine, attending tastings, trade fairs and wine events and, last but not least, practical work in the vineyards and cellars of winemaker friends, I created the first Lexicon with around 800 keywords. This was offered to Utz Graafmann in 1999, who had gone online shortly before with his wine website "wein.plus". This marked the beginning of a fruitful collaboration that continues to this day.

I wish you every success in your search - Norbert Franz-Josef Tischelmayer

Content and scope

The wine encyclopaedia at wein.plus is the world's largest online knowledge database on the subject of wine with 26,382 keywords. It describes around 2,700 grape varieties, over 2,000 wineries with descriptions of their operations, over 10,000 different vineyard, wine and vinification terms, around 100 countries with their wine-growing history, wine-growing regions, grape varieties, wineries and wines, over 600 biographies of famous personalities as well as all important wine law issues. Since 1999, when it started with 800 keywords, it has grown 25-fold. The Lexicon is a "living" work, as comments from users are taken into account on a daily basis, which means that it is constantly being adapted to their requirements.

Handling and search logic

With a work of this size, the question inevitably arises as to how to find the desired information as quickly as possible and how to get an overview of the content. A detailed description of this can be found under the keyword Wine lexicon is included.

Collaboration and support

The author of an encyclopaedia is dependent on sources as well as information and support from experts. This is particularly important in the field of viticulture, where changes occur almost daily as a result of new developments and findings. Over the last 15 years, an extensive network with many contacts worldwide has been built up in this respect. Special mention and thanks for their support

The following people deserve special mention and thanks for their support:

  • Prof Kym Anderson (economist, Australia)
    most important source regarding grape variety quantities & growing regions
  • Heidi & Dr Peter Bezold
    for many translation activities (French, Portuguese, Spanish, English)
  • Peter Gebler (IHK-certified interpreter and translator for German/English)
    for numerous translations and information
  • Marcus Hofschuster (head taster wein.plus)
    for a lot of information and texts regarding wine tasting & wine evaluation
  • Joachim A. J. Kaiser (graduate biologist, www.vinositas.com)
    for collaboration and review of texts
  • Egon Mark (qualified sommelier, wine author)
    for many tips and hints
  • Dr Erika Maul (grapevine geneticist, Julius Kühn Institute)
    for a wealth of information on grape varieties
  • André Mégroz (photographer, www.insects.ch)
    for the provision of pictures
  • Franz Scheibenreif (Federal Winery Inspector Austria)
    for a lot of information on wine law issues
  • Carsten M. Stammen (wine journalist, taster)
    for many contributions and assistance with keywords
  • Dr Wolfgang Thomann (mathematician & wine author)
    for extensive editing and advice
  • Dr José Vouillamoz (biologist, grapevine geneticist)
    most important source on grapevine genetics ex "Wine Grapes"
  • Katrin Walter (Italy representative wein.plus)
    for many translations and support with Italian questions


Another important source are the users of the encyclopaedia. From this circle of many thousands of users constantly come questions, suggestions, proposals for extensions and new headwords as well as corrections. Well over 2,000 new keywords have been created on the basis of suggestions from users. Many people have contributed directly or indirectly to the development of Lexicon to its current state.

The following people have provided valuable help:

Martin Adler, Wilhelm Amort, Wolfram Armbruster, Gertrud Bachmann, Alfred Bachmayr, Karl Bajano (vulgo "Koal"), Christiane Barth, Andreas Becker, Steffen Becker, Bernd Beckschwarte, Andreas Beer, Walter Bernhaupt, Peter Berns, Manfred Bohn, Ewald Briesch, Johannes B. Bucej, Dirk Boujong, Patrick Bous, Dietmar Bruckner, Joachim Buchta, Eduardo Capurro, Lars Dalgaard, Ivan Dramlitsch, Ingo Drescher, Brigitte Engelmann, Axel Finger, Rudi Finkler, Friedrich Fischer, Manfred A. Fischer, Friedhelm Fritsch, Jürgen W. Fritz, Alex Fromm, Peter Gebler, Helmut Gidl, Karl-Heinz Gierling, Hans-Wilhelm Grabbe, Christian Graf, Björn Gülsdorff, Johann Gutauer, Klaus-Dieter Gwiasda, Andreas Haeger, Karl Heblich, Andreas Heller, Max Hendlmaier, Sybille Herbst, Horst Hermann, Helmut Herrmann, Gert Hiller, Sigbert Hiss, Rudolf Hutterer, Reimer J. Huy, Andreas Jung, Günter Junker, Peter Junker, Joachim Kaiser, Walter Kaltzin, Stefan Keller, Deborah Keser, Achim Kirchner, Karsten Kirsch, Klaus Klein, Bernd Klingenbrunn, Tomaz Klipsteter, Wolfgang Klug, Helmut O. Knall (vulgo "Knalli"), Frank Kobus, Jürgen Krüger, Bettina Lander, Anton Landort, Florian Lauer, Giuseppe Lauria, Mari Lax-Hoffmann, Edmund Lemperle, Joachim Lorenz, Elmar M. Lorey, Florence Ludi, Udo Ludwig, Moritz Lüke, Ute Mangold, Andreas März, Johannes Misslbeck, Salvador Montenegro, Wolfgang Mucher, Jochen Müller, Matthias Neske, Siegfried Nowak, Thomas P. Offner, Claudia Oldenburg, Stelios Paltatzidis, Herbert Patrak, Gerhard Paul, Michael Petz, Jörg Philipp, Gerhard Präsent, Michael Pronay, Torsten Rahn, Ferdinand Regner, Jörg and Rita Reidlinger, Frank Rembold, Simone Renth-Queins, Steven Richter-McAulay, Thomas Riedl, Frank Röder, Dieter Sagolla, Fritz Sahli, Walter Salzbrunn, Henry Sams, Werner Saumweber, Stefan Schäfer (known as "Weinschaf"), Joe Scherer, Sven Schiffmann, Frank Schindler, Oliver Schmidt, Ralf Scholze, Bernhard Seeber, Christian Seegers (known as "Weinnase"), Daniel Senn, Thomas Sommer, Frank Stehr, Jürgen Steinmeyer, Verena Suratny, Ricardo Tognella, Tobias Treppenhauer, Dietrich Treusch, Claudine Villetet, Darius Voisiat, Walter Waimann, Cornelia Wehrmann, Bernd Weik, Carolin Werner, Ruedi Wildbolz, Janina Wilsch, Herbert Friedrich Witzel, Jeffrey Wolff, Dominik Ziller (vulgo "Bonner Reblaus").

Sources and literature
The sources include well over 100 different works. Almost all well-known authors are represented.


Aeberhard, Marcel
History of the old grape varieties
Aarcadia-Verlag, Solothurn 2005

A La Carte - The Gourmet Guide
Schmid, Hans (ed.)
Gastronomy guide publisher

Ambrosi, Hans
Wine lexicon
Falken-Verlag, Niedernhausen 1998

Anderson, Burton
Atlas of Italian Wines
Hallwag, Bern and Stuttgart 1998

Anderson, Burton
Italy's wines 2000/2001
Over 2000 wines and producers
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 2000

Anderson, Kym
Which Winegrape Varieties are Grown Where? A Global Empirical Picture
Australia, University of Adelaide 2014


Bassermann-Jordan, Friedrich
History of viticulture
Heinrich Keller, Frankfurt am Main 1907

Bauer, Karl/Regner, Ferdinand/Schildberger, Barbara
AV-Fachbuch im Cadmos-Verlag 2008, 9th updated edition 2013

Bernert, Hans
And it should be quite moussing
Paul Neff publishing house

The Bible
Herder KG, Freiburg

Bieber, Ernst
Wine Treasures of Austria
Guide to the rarities from the last century
Unikum publishing house, Graz 2002

Blaschke, Fritz / Mohr, Gerhard
World of distilled wines
GM-Verlag, Vienna 1996

Blauensteiner, Reinhard
WeinG - Wine Law
Publisher Austria, Vienna 2001

Bockholt, Werner
I got drunk for nothing
Goethe and the wine
Schnell publishing house, 1999

Bonnefoit, Guy
Bonnefoit Germany - Fascination Wine & Flavours
Publishing house Gebrüder Kornmayer, Dreieich 2007

Braatz, Dieter / Sautter, Ulrich / Swoboda Ingo / Holler Hendrik
Wine Atlas Germany
Hallwaag, Munich 2007

Broadbent, Michael
Test, know and enjoy wines
Hallwag, Bern and Stuttgart 1999

Bruckner, Bernulf (text) / Stein, Gerhard (picture)
The wine connoisseur
Österr. Agrarverlag, Vienna 1998

Dr Burmeister, Jens


Clarke, Oz
Clarke's little wine guide
600 wines from all over the world
Droemer, Munich 2000

Clarke, Oz
Clarke's big Lexicon of wines
Droemer, Munich 2000

Clarke, Oz
Clarke's great Lexicon of the grape varieties
Droemer, Munich 2001


Dähnhard, Wolfgang
Atlas of Austrian Wines
Hallwag, Bern and Stuttgart 1999

Dähnhard, Wolfgang
Wine Hikes Lower Austria
(Wachau, Kremstal, Kamptal, Traisental, Donauland)
NP Buchverlag, St. Pölten, Vienna, Linz 2000

Dähnhard, Wolfgang
Wine Hikes Lower Austria
(Weinviertel, Carnuntum, Thermenregion)
NP Buchverlag, St. Pölten, Vienna, Linz 2001

Dähnhard, Wolfgang
Wine Hikes Burgenland
NP Buchverlag, St. Pölten, Vienna, Linz 2001

Daniel, Christopher
The "Cena Trimalchionis" of Petronius
(Food and drink in ancient Rome)
Thesis for the Phil. University of Erlangen

German Wine Atlas
Ed. German Wine Institute
Rolf L. Temming, Bad Rothenfelde 1999

DWI - German Wine Institute
see under www.deutscheweine.de

Dippel, Horst
The Wine lexicon
Fischer-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main 1997

Dominé, André (ed.)
Tandem Verlag GmbH, Cologne 2008


Eckhart, Walter / Sommer, Robert
It was the phylloxera
Mandelbaum, Vienna 1997

Eder, Reinhard (Editorial director)
Wine faults - Recognise, avoid, correct
Österr. Agrarverlag Druck- und Verlags Ges.m.b.H. Nfg.KG

Eichelmann, Gerhard
Germany's wines 2017
Mondo Heidelberg 2017

Enoteca Italiana
Lexicon of Italian wines
all DOCG & DOC wines
Hallwaag, Munich 2000

Essenpreis, Sigrun
Various articles in wein.plus


Falstaff Wine Guide Austria/South Tyrol 2014/2015
Moser Peter, Kiem Othmar
Falstaff Verlags-GesmbH Vienna

Falstaff Wine Guide Germany 2017
Haslauer Ursula and Teuner Christoph (ed.), Sautter Ulrich (author)
Falstaff Germany


Gabriel, René
Bordeaux Total
WeinWisser publishing house 2004

Gault Millau Wine and Schnapps 2000 Austria
Michael Reinartz (Ed.)
Guide Publishing House

Society for the History of Wine
by Paul Claus and co-workers
Personalities of wine culture
Short biographies from 16 centuries
Writings on the History of Wine No. 140
Wiesbaden 2002

Gööck, Roland
Wine - 75 savoury recipes from all over the world
Sigloch Edition, Salzburg 1983

Guía Peñin
Spain's wine guide 2017
Heel Königswinter 2016

Guinness Book of Records 2000
Guinness Verlag GmbH, Hamburg 1999


Hachette - Wine Guide France 2003
Hallwag, Bern and Stuttgart 2003

Hanten, Christa / Hämmerle, Peter
Vinegar - The acidic environment
Holzhausen publishing house. Vienna 2000

Hanten, Christa
BEST OF Sweet - The catalogue 2001
Wine advertising Burgenland

Hanten, Christa
The ABC of Wines Germany, Austria, Switzerland
Eno-Verlag 2003

Hanten, Christa / Kutscher, Walter
Wine Burgenland
Edition Gutenberg, Wiener Neustadt 2004

Hellwig, Gerhard
Lexicon of measures, currencies and weights from A to Z
Orbis, Munich 1990

Hillebrand, Walter / Lott, Heinz / Pfaff, Franz
Pocket book of grape varieties
Fachverlag Fraund, Mainz 1997

Hoeniger, Karl Theodor
South Tyrolean Wine Primer
Published by Ferrari-Auer AG, Bolzano 1964

Hoffmann, Kurt
Enology in keywords
Ferdinand Hirt, Unterägeri 1987

Hofschuster, Marcus
The Wein-Plus Wine Guide Germany 2002 (in four volumes)
Utz Graafmann, Erlangen 2002

Holecek, Heinz / Svec, Isa
Wine journey in the footsteps of the Habsburgs
Edition S - Verlag Österreich, Vienna 1994

Hubert, Wolfgang
Spanish and Portuguese wines 2001
Mary Hahn Verlag, Munich 2001


Johnson, Hugh
The great Johnson
Hallwag, Bern and Munich 2001

Johnson, Hugh
Atlas of German Wines
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1997

Johnson, Hugh / Duijker, Hubrecht
Atlas of French Wines
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1998

Johnson, Hugh
The little Johnson for wine connoisseurs
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 2002

Johnson, Hugh
The new wine atlas - countries, sites, qualities
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1998

Johnson, Hugh
Enjoying wine
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1998

Johnson, Hugh
Wine history - from Dionysus to Rothschild
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1990

Johnson, Hugh / Halliday James
How wine is made
Gifted by the gods, made by men
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1993

Jordan, Peter H.
Vintage Chronicle - Wine over the last 2000 years

Joseph, Robert / Simon, Joanna
The white wines of France
Pietsch, Dietikon-Zurich 1989


Katschner, Engelbert
Wine country Styria - The 100 best wineries
Styrian publishing house 2001

Kämmer, Frank
The 100 best vineyards in Germany
Hampp Media GmbH, Stuttgart 2006

Short, Joachim
The Rothschilds and wine - a success story from Bordeaux
Ullstein Buchverlage GmbH, Berlin 2006

Kutscher, Walter
The Austrian Wine Guide 1995 - 1000 wines, rated and described
Deuticke, Vienna 1995

Kutscher, Walter
Wine Marketing/Winemaker Practice Volume 7
Österreichischer Agrarverlag, Leopoldsdorf 2003

Kutscher, Walter
Wine country Lower Austria - growing areas, varieties,
Winemakers Edition Gutenberg, 2003


Lemperle, Edmund
Recognising wine faults - identification, avoidance, remedies
Eugen Ulmer KG, 2007


Mark, Egon
The wine quiz - learning wine like a sommelier
Publishing house Gebrüder Kornmayer, Rödermark 2008

McCabe, John

Meesters, Karel
Pocket encyclopaedia of wine
Hallwaag, Bern and Stuttgart 2000

Meininger, Friedrich/Blankenhorn, Dieter/Funk, Edgar
The Winegrower 2 - Cellar Management
Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, 1984 Stuttgart

Blankenhorn, Dieter/Funk, Edgar (ed. Meininger, Friedrich)
Der Winzer 2 - Kellerwirtschaft - 4th updated edition
Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, 2012 Stuttgart

Michel, Christoph
Goethe - The poet and the wine
Insel Verlag, Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig 2000

Mraz, Hannes / Valentin, Hans
Wine law 5th edition
Manz-Verlag, Vienna 2012

Müller, Edgar/Kadisch, Erwin/Schulze, Gerd/Walg, Oswald
The winegrower 1 - Viticulture
Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, 1986 and 1999 Stuttgart

Müller, Edgar/ Walg, Oswald/Lipps, Hans-Peter (limited Kadisch, Erwin)
Der Winzer 1 - Viticulture - 3rd completely revised edition
Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, 2008 Stuttgart


Austria Wine Marketing GmbH


Parker, Robert M.
Parker's Wine Guide
Heyne, Munich 2000

Pepperkorn, David
Bordeaux - 1000 Châteaux and their wines
Hallwaag, Munich and Bern, 2002

Peynaud, Émile
The high school for wine connoisseurs
Müller Rüschlikon, Cham 1995

Phillips, Roderick
The great history of wine
Campus Verlag, Frankfurt/New York 2001

Priewe, Jens
Wine - The new great school - All about the world of wine
Zabert Sandmann, Munich 1997

Priewe, Jens
Wine - The new world
Zabert Sandmann, Munich 1998

Prónay, Michael
Various publications


Radford, John
Wine Landscape Spain - Tradition and New Beginnings
Hallwag, Bern and Stuttgart 1998

Rasch, Johann
Wine book - of the cultivation, care and custom of wine
Adam Berg, Munich 1582

Regner, Ferdinand
Interesting facts about our grape varieties
The winegrower - 11/1999

Regner, Ferdinand
Genetic analysis of grape varieties
German Winegrowing Yearbook 2000, Waldkircher Verlag, Waldkirch

Robinson, Jancis
Grape varieties and their wines
Hallwag, Bern and Stuttgart 1998

Robinson, Jancis (ed.)
The Oxford Companion to Wine (English original "The Oxford Companion to Wine")
Hallwag - Gräfe and Unzer Publishers 1995/2003/2007

Robinson, Jancis / Harding, Julia / Vouillamoz José
Wine Grapes
Penguin Books Ltd London 2012


Sailer, Michael
The Tokay Book
Michael Sailer Publishers. Munich

Scheuermann, Mario
The great wines of the century
Falken, Niedernhausen 1999

Schevardo, Wilhelm / Koy, Josef
Wine Law
Walhalla-Verlag, Regensburg 2012

Schreiner, Bernd

Siegl, Viktor / Steurer, Rudolf
Recognising and enjoying wine - The wine handbook for beginners
Ueberreuter, Vienna 2000

Steidl, Robert
Cellar management
Österreichischer Agrarverlag - 2001 Leopoldsdorf
Dept. of Cellar Management/Dept. of Enology
Federal College and Federal Office
for Viticulture and Fruit Growing Klosterneuburg NÖ

Steurer, Rudolf
Wine Handbook
Ueberreuter, Vienna 1995

Steurer, Rudolf
World Wine Almanac
Gondrom, Bindlach 1997

Stevenson, Tom
The new Sotheby's Wine Encyclopaedia - The Wines of the World
Club Premiere 2001

Stublia, Belinda / Mölstad, Mikael
The little wine school
Southwest, Munich 2000

South Africa Online Wine Guide
at www.sa-weine.de

Supp, Eckhard
Encyclopaedia of Italian wines
Eno-Verlag, Offenbach 1997

Supp, Eckhard
ABC of Italian wines
Eno-Verlag, Offenbach 2000


Tischelmayer, Norbert
Wine glossary - 2777 terms relating to wine
NP-Verlag, St. Pölten 2001


Vinaria - Austrian magazine for wine culture
Lower Austrian Press House Magazines, St. Pölten

Vinaria - Our wine
Kutscher / Prónay / Schleimer / Siegl
LW Werbe- und Verlagsgesellschaft St. Pölten - Vienna

Vini d'Italia
Gambero Rosso
Slow Food Editore

Vitis International Variety Catalogue
Federal Institute for Cultivation Research on Cultivated Plants BAW
Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (IRZ)

Vogt, Ernst / Schruft, Günter
Eugen Ulmer publishing house, Stuttgart 1950/2000

Vogt, Ina
Wine Law in Germany - Wine Law, Wine Ordinance etc.
SV Saxonia Publishing House for Law, Economics and Culture, Dresden 2009


WIKIPEDIA - The free encyclopaedia
Use of various facts

Dictionary of the German Winegrowers' Language (WDW)
See under www.winzersprache.de

Der Winzer - The trade journal of Austrian viticulture
Austrian agricultural publishing house Druck- und Verlags-Ges.m.b.H.

The world's largest Lexicon of wine terms.

26,382 Keywords · 46,989 Synonyms · 5,323 Translations · 31,716 Pronunciations · 202,680 Cross-references
made with by our author Norbert F. J. Tischelmayer.