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About the encyclopaedia Author Norbert Tischelmayer

I was born in the Lower Austrian Weinviertel - in the middle of vineyards, so to speak. My father was employed by a large winery for decades. When I was a child, I regularly helped with the grape harvests. These were the first impulses for me to get involved with wine. However, I first got into electronic data processing (EDP), which was still young at that time, and then worked for 35 years in an EDP service company for banks and savings banks in the areas of computer centre, internal auditing, training and process organisation as a manager. During this time I also managed several major projects in the areas of corporate mergers, rationalisation, process organisation and change management

It was relatively late that I came to wine. At the beginning of the 1990s, I was invited to a wine tasting where I tasted around ten varieties under expert guidance with the necessary explanations. This was the first time I experienced that wine can be enjoyed not only with the palate and the tongue, but also with the nose and the eyes. Through this positive experience, my interest was aroused and I began to deal intensively - both practically and theoretically - with the "divine drink".

After several wine seminars, reading around 100 books about wine, visiting tastings, fairs and wine events, and last but not least, practical work in vineyards and cellars of winemaker friends, the first encyclopaedia with around 800 keywords was created. This was offered to Utz Graafmann in 1999, who had gone online with his wine website "wein.plus" shortly before. This marked the beginning of a fruitful collaboration that continues to this day.

I wish you much success in your search - Norbert Tischelmayer

Follow me also on Facebook and learn exciting and surprising facts about wine every week!

Content and scope

The wine encyclopaedia of wein.plus is the world's largest online knowledge database on wine with 26,032 keywords. It describes around 2,700 grape varieties, more than 2,000 wineries with descriptions of their operations, more than 10,000 different vineyard, wine and vinification terms, around 100 countries with their wine-growing history, wine-growing regions, grape varieties, wineries and wines, more than 600 biographies of famous personalities, as well as all important matters of wine law. Since 1999, when it contained 800 keywords, it has grown 25-fold. The encyclopaedia is a "living" work, because it takes into account daily comments from users, which means that it is constantly being adapted to their needs.

Handling and search logic

A work of this size inevitably raises the question of how to find the desired information most quickly or how to get an overview of the content. In this respect, a detailed description is given under the heading Wine Encyclopaedia.

Cooperation and support

The author of an encyclopaedia is dependent on sources as well as on information and support from experts. This is especially indispensable in the field of viticulture, where changes occur almost daily due to new developments and findings. In the last 15 years, an extensive network with many contacts worldwide has been built up in this respect. Special mention and thanks for the support

The following persons deserve special mention and thanks for their support:

  • Prof. Kym Anderson (economist, Australia)
    most important source regarding grape variety quantities & growing areas
  • Heidi & Dr. Peter Bezold
    for many translations (French, Portuguese, Spanish, English)
  • Peter Gebler (IHK certified interpreter and translator for German/English)
    for numerous translations and information
  • Marcus Hofschuster (chief taster wein.plus)
    for many information and texts concerning wine tasting & wine evaluation
  • Joachim A. J. Kaiser (graduate biologist, www.vinositas.com)
    for collaboration and review of texts
  • Egon Mark (graduate sommelier, wine author)
    for many tips and hints
  • Dr. Erika Maul (grapevine geneticist, Julius Kühn Institute)
    for numerous information on grape varieties
  • André Mégroz (photographer, www.insects.ch)
    for providing pictures
  • Ing. Franz Scheibenreif (Federal Winery Inspector Austria)
    for a lot of information on wine law issues
  • Carsten M. Stammen (wine journalist, taster)
    for many contributions and collaboration on keywords
  • Dr. Wolfgang Thomann (graduate mathematician & wine author)
    for extensive editing and advice
  • Dr. José Vouillamoz (biologist, grapevine geneticist)
    most important source concerning grapevine genetics ex "Wine Grapes
  • Katrin Walter (Italy representative wein.plus)
    for many translations and support with questions about Italy


Another important source are the users of the encyclopaedia. Questions, suggestions, proposals for extensions and new keywords as well as corrections are constantly coming from this circle of many thousands. Well over 2 000 new keywords have been created on the basis of suggestions from users. Many people have contributed directly or indirectly to the further development of the encyclopaedia to its current state.

The following people have provided valuable help:

Martin Adler, Wilhelm Amort, Wolfram Armbruster, Gertrud Bachmann, Alfred Bachmayr, Karl Bajano (vulgo "Koal"), Christiane Barth, Andreas Becker, Steffen Becker, Bernd Beckschwarte, Andreas Beer, Walter Bernhaupt, Peter Berns, Manfred Bohn, Ewald Briesch, Johannes B. Bucej, Dirk Boujong, Patrick Bous, Dietmar Bruckner, Joachim Buchta, Eduardo Capurro, Lars Dalgaard, Ivan Dramlitsch, Ingo Drescher, Brigitte Engelmann, Axel Finger, Rudi Finkler, Friedrich Fischer, Manfred A. Fischer, Friedhelm Fritsch, Jürgen W. Fritz, Alex Fromm, Peter Gebler, Helmut Gidl, Karl-Heinz Gierling, Hans-Wilhelm Grabbe, Christian Graf, Björn Gülsdorff, Johann Gutauer, Klaus-Dieter Gwiasda, Andreas Haeger, Karl Heblich, Andreas Heller, Max Hendlmaier, Sybille Herbst, Horst Hermann, Helmut Herrmann, Gert Hiller, Sigbert Hiss, Rudolf Hutterer, Reimer J. Huy, Andreas Jung, Günter Junker, Peter Junker, Joachim Kaiser, Walter Kaltzin, Stefan Keller, Deborah Keser, Achim Kirchner, Karsten Kirsch, Klaus Klein, Bernd Klingenbrunn, Tomaz Klipsteter, Wolfgang Klug, Helmut O. Knall (vulgo "Knalli"), Frank Kobus, Jürgen Krüger, Bettina Lander, Anton Landort, Florian Lauer, Giuseppe Lauria, Mari Lax-Hoffmann, Edmund Lemperle, Joachim Lorenz, Elmar M. Lorey, Florence Ludi, Udo Ludwig, Moritz Lüke, Ute Mangold, Andreas März, Johannes Mißlbeck, Salvador Montenegro, Wolfgang Mucher, Jochen Müller, Matthias Neske, Siegfried Nowak, Thomas P. Offner, Claudia Oldenburg, Stelios Paltatzidis, Herbert Patrak, Gerhard Paul, Michael Petz, Jörg Philipp, Gerhard Präsent, Michael Pronay, Torsten Rahn, Ferdinand Regner, Jörg and Rita Reidlinger, Frank Rembold, Simone Renth-Queins, Steven Richter-McAulay, Thomas Riedl, Frank Röder, Dieter Sagolla, Fritz Sahli, Walter Salzbrunn, Henry Sams, Werner Saumweber, Stefan Schäfer (vulgo "Weinschaf"), Joe Scherer, Sven Schiffmann, Frank Schindler, Oliver Schmidt, Ralf Scholze, Bernhard Seeber, Christian Seegers (vulgo "Weinnase"), Daniel Senn, Thomas Sommer, Frank Stehr, Jürgen Steinmeyer, Verena Suratny, Ricardo Tognella, Tobias Treppenhauer, Dietrich Treusch, Claudine Villetet, Darius Voisiat, Walter Waimann, Cornelia Wehrmann, Bernd Weik, Carolin Werner, Ruedi Wildbolz, Janina Wilsch, Herbert Friedrich Witzel, Jeffrey Wolff, Dominik Ziller (vulgo "Bonner Reblaus").

Sources and literature
The sources include well over 100 different works. Among them are almost all well-known authors.


Aeberhard, Marcel
History of the old grape varieties
Aarcadia Publishing House, Solothurn 2005

A La Carte - The Gourmet Guide
Schmid, Hans (ed.)
Gastronomy Guide Publishing House

Ambrosi, Hans
Wine Encyclopaedia
Falken-Verlag, Niedernhausen 1998

Anderson, Burton
Atlas of Italian Wines
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1998

Anderson, Burton
Italy's Wines 2000/2001
Over 2000 wines and producers
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 2000

Anderson, Kym
Which Winegrape Varieties are Grown Where? A Global Empirical Picture
Australia, University of Adelaide 2014


Bassermann-Jordan, Friedrich
History of Viticulture
Heinrich Keller, Frankfurt am Main 1907

Bauer, Karl/Regner, Ferdinand/Schildberger, Barbara
AV-Fachbuch im Cadmos-Verlag 2008, 9th updated edition 2013

Bernert, Hans
And quite moussing it shall be
Paul Neff Publishing House

Herder KG, Freiburg

Bieber, Ernst
Wine Treasures of Austria
Guide to the rarities of the last century
Unikum Publishing House, Graz 2002

Blaschke, Fritz / Mohr, Gerhard
World of distilled wines
GM-Verlag, Wien 1996

Blauensteiner, Reinhard
Wine Law - Wine Law
Publisher Austria, Wien 2001

Bockholt, Werner
I got drunk for nothing
Goethe and Wine
Schnell Publishing House, 1999

Bonnefoit, Guy
Bonnefoit Germany - Fascination Wine & Flavours
Kornmayer Brothers Publishing House, Dreieich 2007

Braatz, Dieter / Sautter, Ulrich / Swoboda Ingo / Holler Hendrik
Wine Atlas Germany
Hallwaag, Munich 2007

Broadbent, Michael
Test, know and enjoy wines
Hallwag, Bern and Stuttgart 1999

Bruckner, Bernulf (text) / Stein, Gerhard (picture)
The wine connoisseur
Österr. Agrarverlag, Wien 1998

Dr. Burmeister, Jens


Clarke, Oz
Clarke's little wine guide
600 wines from all over the world
Droemer, Munich 2000

Clarke, Oz
Clarke's great encyclopaedia of wines
Droemer, Munich 2000

Clarke, Oz
Clarke's great encyclopaedia of grape varieties
Droemer, Munich 2001


Dähnhard, Wolfgang
Atlas of Austrian Wines
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1999

Dähnhard, Wolfgang
Wine Walks Lower Austria
(Wachau, Kremstal, Kamptal, Traisental, Donauland)
NP Buchverlag, St. Pölten, Wien, Linz 2000

Dähnhard, Wolfgang
Wine Hikes Lower Austria
(Weinviertel, Carnuntum, Thermenregion)
NP Buchverlag, St. Pölten, Wien, Linz 2001

Dähnhard, Wolfgang
Wine Hikes Burgenland
NP Buchverlag, St. Pölten, Wien, Linz 2001

Daniel, Christopher
The "Cena Trimalchionis" of Petronius
(Eating and drinking in ancient Rome)
Work for the Phil. University of Erlangen

German Wine Atlas
Ed. German Wine Institute
Rolf L. Temming, Bad Rothenfelde 1999

DWI - German Wine Institute
see at www.deutscheweine.de

Dippel, Horst
The Wine Encyclopaedia
Fischer-Verlag, Frankfurt/Main 1997

Dominé, André (ed.)
Tandem Publishing House, Cologne 2008


Eckhart, Walter / Sommer, Robert
It was the phylloxera
Mandelbaum, Wien 1997

Eder, Reinhard (editorial management)
Wine faults - Recognise, avoid, correct
Österr. Agrarverlag Druck- und Verlags Ges.m.b.H. Nfg.KG

Eichelmann, Gerhard
Germany's Wines 2017
Mondo Heidelberg 2017

Enoteca Italiana
Encyclopaedia of Italian Wines
all DOCG & DOC wines
Hallwaag, Munich 2000

Essenpreis, Sigrun
Various articles in the wein.plus


Falstaff Wine Guide Austria/South Tyrol 2014/2015
Moser Peter, Kiem Othmar
Falstaff Publishing Ltd Wien

FalstaffWineguide Germany 2017
Haslauer Ursula and Teuner Christoph (eds.), Sautter Ulrich (author)
Falstaff Germany


Gabriel, René
Bordeaux Total
WeinWisser Publishing House 2004

Gault Millau Wine and Schnapps 2000 Austria
Michael Reinartz (Ed.)

Society for the History of Wine
by Paul Claus and collaborators
Personalities of Wine Culture
Short biographies from 16 centuries
Writings on the History of Wine No. 140
Wiesbaden 2002

Gööck, Roland
Wine - 75 savoury recipes from all over the world
Sigloch Edition, Salzburg 1983

Guía Peñin
Spain's Wine Guide 2017
Heel Königswinter 2016

Guinness Book of Records 2000
Guinness Publishing House, Hamburg 1999


Hachette - Wine Guide France 2003
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 2003

Hanten, Christa / Hämmerle, Peter
Vinegar - The Acidic Environment
Holzhausen Publishing House. Wien 2000

Hanten, Christa
Best of Sweet - The 2001 Catalogue
Wine Advertising Burgenland

Hanten, Christa
The ABC of Wines Germany, Austria, Switzerland
Eno-Verlag 2003

Hanten, Christa / Kutscher, Walter
Wine Burgenland
Edition Gutenberg, Wiener Neustadt 2004

Hellwig, Gerhard
Encyclopaedia of measures, currencies and weights from A to Z
Orbis, Munich 1990

Hillebrand, Walter / Lott, Heinz / Pfaff, Franz
Pocketbook of Vine Varieties
Fachverlag Fraund, Mainz 1997

Hoeniger, Karl Theodor
South Tyrolean Wine Primer
Publishing house Ferrari-Auer AG, Bolzano 1964

Hoffmann, Kurt
Wine studies in key words
Ferdinand Hirt, Unterägeri 1987

HHofschuster Marcus
The Wein-Plus Wine Guide Germany 2002 (in four volumes)
Utz Graafmann, Erlangen 2002

Holecek, Heinz / Svec, Isa
Wine Journey in the Footsteps of the Habsburgs
Edition S - Verlag Österreich, Wien 1994

Hubert, Wolfgang
Spanish and Portuguese Wines 2001
Mary Hahn Publishing House, Munich 2001


Johnson, Hugh
The great Johnson
Hallwag, Berne and Munich 2001

Johnson, Hugh
Atlas of German Wines
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1997

Johnson, Hugh / Duijker, Hubrecht
Atlas of French Wines
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1998

Johnson, Hugh
The little Johnson for wine connoisseurs
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 2002

Johnson, Hugh
The New Wine Atlas - Countries, Sites, Qualities
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1998

Johnson, Hugh
Enjoying wine
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1998

Johnson, Hugh
History of Wine - from Dionysus to Rothschild
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1990

Johnson, Hugh / Halliday James
How wine is made
Given by the gods, made by men
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1993

Jordan, Peter H
Chronicle of vintages - Wine over the last 2000 years

Joseph, Robert / Simon, Joanna
The White Wines of France
Pietsch, Dietikon-Zurich 1989


Katschner, Engelbert
Wine Country Styria - The 100 Best Wineries
Styrian Publishing Company 2001

Kämmer, Frank
The 100 best vineyards in Germany
Hampp Media GmbH, Stuttgart 2006

Short, Joachim
The Rothschilds and the Wine - A Success Story from Bordeaux
Ullstein Buchverlage GmbH, Berlin 2006

Kutscher, Walter
The Austrian Wine Guide 1995 - 1000 wines, rated and described
Deuticke, Wien 1995

Kutscher, Walter
Wine Marketing/Winemaking Practice Volume 7
Austrian Agricultural Publishing House, Leopoldsdorf 2003

Kutscher, Walter
Wine country Lower Austria - growing areas, varieties,
Winegrowers Edition Gutenberg, 2003


Lemperle, Edmund
Recognising wine faults - Determining, avoiding, remedies
Eugen Ulmer KG, 2007


Mark, Egon
The wine quiz - learning wine like a sommelier
Kornmayer Brothers Publishing House, Rödermark 2008

McCabe, John

Meesters, Karel
Pocket encyclopaedia of wine
Hallwaag, Bern and Stuttgart 2000

Meininger, Friedrich/Blankenhorn, Dieter/Funk, Edgar
The Winegrower 2 - Cellar Management
Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, 1984 Stuttgart

Blankenhorn, Dieter/Funk, Edgar (ed. Meininger, Friedrich)
The Winemaker 2 - Cellar Management - 4th updated edition
Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, 2012 Stuttgart

Michel, Christoph
Goethe - The Poet and the Wine
Insel Publishing House, Frankfurt am Main and Leipzig 2000

Mraz, Hannes / Valentin, Hans
Wine Law 5th Edition
Manz-Verlag, Wien 2012

Müller, Edgar/Kadisch, Erwin/Schulze, Gerd/Walg, Oswald
The Winegrower 1 - Viticulture
Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, 1986 and 1999 Stuttgart

Müller, Edgar/ Walg, Oswald/Lipps, Hans-Peter (ed. Kadisch, Erwin)
Der Winzer 1 - Viticulture - 3rd completely revised edition
Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co, 2008 Stuttgart


Austria Wine Marketing GmbH


Parker, Robert M
Parker's Wine Guide
Heyne, Munich 2000

Pepperkorn, David
Bordeaux - 1000 Châteaux and their Wines
Hallwaag, Munich and Bern, 2002

Peynaud, Émile
The high school for wine connoisseurs
Müller Rüschlikon, Cham 1995

Phillips, Roderick
The great history of wine
Campus Publishing House, Frankfurt/New York 2001

Priewe, Jens
Wine - The new big school - Everything about the world of wine
Zabert Sandmann, Munich 1997

Priewe, Jens
Wine - The New World
Zabert Sandmann, Munich 1998

Prónay, Michael
Various Publications


Radford, John
Wine Landscape Spain - Tradition and Awakening
Hallwag, Bern and Stuttgart 1998

Rasch, Johann
Wine book - of Baw, care and custom of the wine
Adam Berg, Munich 1582

Regner, Ferdinand
Interesting facts about our grape varieties
The Winegrower - 11/1999

Regner, Ferdinand
Genetic analysis of grape varieties
German Viticulture Yearbook 2000, Waldkircher Publishing House, Waldkirch

Robinson, Jancis
Grape Varieties and their Wines
Hallwag, Berne and Stuttgart 1998

Robinson, Jancis (ed.)
The Oxford Wine Encyclopaedia (English original "The Oxford Companion to Wine")
Hallwag - Gräfe and Unzer Publishing House 1995/2003/2007

Robinson, Jancis / Harding, Julia / Vouillamoz José
Wine Grapes
Penguin Books Ltd. London 2012


Sailer, Michael
The Tokay Book
Michael Sailer Publishers. Munich

Scheuermann, Mario
The great wines of the century
Falken, Niedernhausen 1999

Schevardo, Wilhelm / Koy, Josef
Wine Law
Walhalla Publishing House, Regensburg 2012

Schreiner, Bernd

Siegl, Viktor / Steurer, Rudolf
Recognising and Enjoying Wine - The Wine Handbook for Beginners
Ueberreuter, Wien 2000

Steidl, Robert
Cellar Management
Austrian Agricultural Publishing House - 2001 Leopoldsdorf
Dept. of Cellar Management/Dept. Enology
Höhere Bundeslehranstalt and Federal Office
for Viticulture and Fruit Growing Klosterneuburg NÖ

Steurer, Rudolf
Wine Handbook
Ueberreuter, Wien 1995

Steurer, Rudolf
World Wine Almanac
Gondrom, Bindlach 1997

Stevenson, Tom
The New Sotheby's Wine Encyclopaedia - Wines of the World
Club Premiere 2001

Stublia, Belinda / Mölstad, Mikael
The Little Wine School
Southwest, Munich 2000

South Africa Online Wine Guide
at www.sa-weine.de

Supp, Eckhard
Encyclopaedia of Italian Wines
Eno-Verlag, Offenbach 1997

Supp, Eckhard
ABC of Italian Wines
Eno-Verlag, Offenbach 2000


Tischelmayer, Norbert
Wine glossary - 2777 terms around wine
NP Publishing House, St. Pölten 2001


Vinaria - Austrian magazine for wine culture
Lower Austrian Press House Magazines, St. Pölten

Vinaria - Our Wine
Kutscher / Prónay / Schleimer / Siegl
LW advertising and publishing company, St. Pölten - Wien

Vini d'Italia
Gambero Rosso
Slow Food Editore

Vitis International Variety Catalogue
Federal Institute for Breeding Research on Cultivated Plants BAW
Institute for Grapevine Breeding Geilweilerhof (IRZ)

Vogt, Ernst / Schruft, Günter
Published by Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 1950/2000

Vogt, Ina
Wine Law in Germany - Wine Law, Wine Ordinance etc
SV Saxonia Publishing House for Law, Economy and Culture, Dresden 2009


WIKIPEDIA - The free encyclopaedia
Use of various facts

Dictionary of the German Winegrowers' Language (WDW)
See at www.winzersprache.de

Der Winzer - The trade journal of Austrian viticulture
Austrian Agricultural Publishing House Druck- und Verlags-Ges.m.b.H

The world's largest Lexicon of wine terms.

26,032 Keywords · 46,827 Synonyms · 5,324 Translations · 31,367 Pronunciations · 184,957 Cross-references
made with by our author Norbert F. J. Tischelmayer.