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Pressure for sparkling wine

See under sparkling wine.

The German term sparkling wine was first used by the German poet Wilhelm Hauff (1802-1827) in his novel "The Man in the Moon" in 1827 and then first appeared in a dictionary in 1876. It is to be understood as an umbrella term or collective term for sparkling wines with a certain proportion of carbon dioxide (colloquially often called carbonic acid ). The higher the proportion and the finer the bubbles, the higher the quality. A good quality is characterised by a pronounced, long-lasting sparkling quality with the finest, i.e. tiny bubbles. This can be achieved especially in the classic production method by bottle fermentation with longer yeast storage.

Schaumwein - Flasche im Einschenkkorb und gefülltes Glas

Sparkling wine types

Depending on the carbon dioxide pressure, there are basically two quality levels - sparkling wine and semi-sparkling wine:

Sparkling wine

There are three different EU-standardised quality designations. A sparkling wine with added carbon dioxide is produced from wine or vin de pays to which carbon dioxide has been added in whole or in part. It must have a carbon dioxide pressure of at least 3 bar at 20 °Celsius. If the carbon dioxide comes exclusively from a second fermentation (in tank or bottle), the designation sparkling wine may be used. For quality sparkling wine with the basic product quality wine, at least 3.5 bar (up to 6 bar can be achieved) carbon dioxide pressure at 20 °Celsius and an alcohol content of at least 9.5% vol. are required. In addition, it must have been produced with at least 60 days of yeast sediment storage.

semi-sparkling wine

A slightly foaming (sparkling) product of lower quality is the semi-sparkling wine with less carbon dioxide pressure (1 to 2.5 bar) and coarser bubbles. There are many country-specific designations (see table below). To avoid confusion with quality sparkling wine, the cork must not be fixed by an agraffe (wire basket). These criteria may also have an influence on sparkling wine tax, which is not levied at semi-sparkling wine. Sparkling wines are closed with a normal cork and, especially in Italy, are usually fixed with a spago (cord).

Country-specific designations

There are many country-specific designations, but only the names Cava and Champagne are protected by origin. The origin of the name Sekt has its own history, which is described in detail.


Quality sparkling wine


semi-sparkling wine

Australia Sparkling Wine also in other countries Pearl Wine
Germany Sparkling wine, Crémant, Winzersekt Sparkling wine, Crémant in many countries semi-sparkling wine, Frizzante, Secco
France/Champagne Champagne protected by origin Pétillant
France Crémant, Vin mousseux outside Champagne,
Crémant also in other countries
Greece Afrodis Oinos - Frizzante
Italy Spumante, Satèn, Talento Spumante and Frizzante
also in other countries
Frizzante, Rosecco, Vivace
California/USA Sparkling Wine also in other countries -
Croatia Pjenušca - -
Austria Sparkling wine, Crémant, Hauersekt - semi-sparkling wine, Frizzante, Secco
Portugal Vinho Espumante - Vinho Frisante
Russia Shampanskoye EU protest against the...

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