Italy is one of the oldest wine-growing countries, with origins dating back at least to 1,000 BC. At that time, the Etruscans appeared in central Italy and settled areas of the four present-day regions of Abruzzo, Lazio, Tuscany and Umbria. The origin of Italian wine culture lies primarily in Greek colonisation, which brought Greek viticultural culture to the peninsula beginning in the 10th century BC on the island of Sicily as well as Campania and Calabria. The Greeks brought many of their grape varieties with them and named the land ideal for viticulture Oinotria (land of vines grown on stakes). Likewise, at this time, the Phoenicians (Punic), who later became a great enemy and established bases in Sicily and the Mediterranean, exerted an influence. From the 6th century BC, a lively trade began with the Celts in Gaul (France), who imported considerable quantities of wine from Upper and Central Italy.
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