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Croatia

Croatia (GB)
Croacia (ES)
Croazia (I)
Croatie (F)
Croácia (PO)
Kroatië (N)

The country has a very old wine culture, because along the Dalmatian Adriatic coast the Illyrians were already cultivating wine in 1000 BC. The Greeks founded some colonies from 600 B.C. onwards. From this time comes the writing "The Feast of the Scholars", in which the wine production in the colony Issa (today's island Vis) is reported. A wine from here was even considered the best of the ancient wines of that time. The Roman emperor Probus (232-282) promoted viticulture in the third century AD and the Slavs who settled here in the seventh century continued to cultivate it. After settling in Dalmatia, the Croats developed viticulture as an important economic sector alongside olive growing and fishing. Around 1000 AD, the Republic of Venice conquered the regions of Dalmatia and parts of Istria and kept the rule for over 300 years.

From the beginning of the 12th century a personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary was established. In 1232 Cistercian monks founded a wine cellar in Kutjevo, which still exists today. In the middle of the 15th century, Hungary and Croatia suffered severe territorial losses due to the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. After many battles against the Ottomans, a large part of Croatia came under Habsburg administration in the 18th century. As a result, there was also a mutual influence on viticulture. The privileged import of Italian wines at the end of the 19th century made viticulture more difficult. After the Second World War Croatia became a part of Yugoslavia and in 1991 became independent as "Republika Hrvatska".

Kroatien - Landkarte und Weingärten auf der Insel Hvar

In 2012, the vineyards covered 29,000 hectares of vineyards, of which 1.293 million hectolitres of wine were produced. The area under vines has thus been reduced by half in only 12 years since 2000. Well-known producers are Enjini Ivan, Katunar, Frano Milos, Grgich Miljenko (cellarmaster of Grgich Hills in Napa Valley), Milos Frano, Krauthaker Vlado, Skaramuca, Zdjelarevic, Zlatan Otok (Zlatan Plenkovic). There are two clearly separated wine regions. These are subdivided into sub-regions and these into growing regions. The northern continental Croatia (Kontinentalna Hrvatska) extends from Slovenia in the west to the border of Serbia in the east. A continental climate prevails here. The region consists of the seven sub-regions Moslavina, Plesivica, Podunavlje(Danube), Pokuplje (Kupa), Prigorje-Bilogora, Slavonija (Slavonia) and Zagorje-Medjimurje. Two thirds of the white wines produced here are white wines.

The region of Croatian coastal land (Primorska Hrvatska) in the south is known mainly for Dalmatia, where the vineyards extend from Rijeka to Dubrovnik. The climate here is Mediterranean. The region is divided into five sub-regions: Dalmatinska Zagora (Dalmatian hinterland), Hrvatsko Primorje (coastal area with many islands such as Hvar, Korčula, Krk, Lastovo and Vis), Istra (Istria), Sjeverna Dalmacija (northern Dalmatia) and Srednja/Juzna Dalmacija (central and southern Dalmatia). Here mainly red wines are grown, the most famous Croatian brand wines are Dingac, Faros, Peljesac, Postup, Prošek and Teran. The 2010 grape variety index shows that many autochthonous varieties are cultivated:

Grape variety Colour Synonyms or name in Croatia Hectare
Welschriesling white Graševina 4.701
Malvasia Istarska white Istarska malvazija, malvazija Istarska Bijela 1.705
Plavac Mali red Crljenak, Kasteljanak 1.569
Merlot red - 780
Riesling white Rizling Rajnski 676
Chardonnay white - 668
Cabernet sauvignon red - 646
Plavina red Brajda, Plavina Crna 643
Blaufränkisch red Frankovka 558
Debit white Čarapar, Debit Bijeli, Puljižanac 403
Babić red Babić Crni, Babić Mali 359
Malvasia Bianca Lunga white Maraština, Rukatac, Višana 285
Kraljevina white Kraljevina Crvena, Red Portuguese 268
Pošip Bijeli white Pošip, Pošipak, Vgorski Bijeli 253
Blanc sauvignon white Sovinjon 249
Gewürztraminer / Traminer white Traminac 234
Trbljan white Dobrogoština, Kuč, Trbljan Bijeli 231
Terrano / Refosco red Teran 228
Pinot Gris white - 219
Trebbiano Toscano white Rogoznička, Šijaka, Ugni Blanc 210
Kujundzusa white Kojundzusa, Kujundzusa Bijela 206
Pinot blanc white Pinot bijeli 188
Syrah red Shiraz 187
Pinot noir red Pinot crni 180
Furmint white Moslavac 172
Vranac red Vranac Crmnichki, Vranac Crni 149
Silvaner white Silvanac Zeleni 139
Žlahtina white Vrbnička Žlahtina, Žlahtina Bijela 135
Ranfol white Plavis, Ranfol Bijela 135
Zweigelt red - 123
Refosco? red - 122
Garnacha tinta red - 103
Cabernet franc red - 95
Cardinal red - 91
Tribidrag / Zinfandel red Crljenak Kaštelanski 65
Škrlet white Ovnek Slatki, Škrlet Tusti, Škrtec 61
Müller-Thurgau white - 60
Gold muscatel (Moscato Giallo) white Nutmeg Zuti 59
Rkatsiteli white - 57
Muscat Blanc / Muscat Plate white Nutmeg Bijeli 56
Kövidinka white Dinka Alba, Kevidinka 56
Victoria (1) white - 52
Bogdanusa white Bogdanjusa, Bogdanusa Bijela 48
Blue Portuguese red Portugizac Crni 42
Vugava white Bugava, Viskulja, Vugava Bijela 36
Cetinka white Blatinka, Blatka, Cetinjka 35
Zlatarica Vrgorska white Plavka, Zlatarica Bijela 19
Trnjak red Rudežuša, Trnjak Crni 15
Lasina red Krapljenica, Kutlarica 14
Rose Muscat red Muškat Ruža Porečki 14
Gegic white Debejan, Debljan, Gegic Bijeli 11
Kerner white Kerner Bijeli 4
Župljanka white Garganja 4
Babica red Babica Crni, Kastelanka ?
Friedkovina Bijela white Brabkovica, Mesnac ?
Dišeca Ranina white Dišeca Ranina Bijela ?
Dobričić red Čihovac, Crljenak Slatinski, Dobričić Crni ?
Drnekusa red Darnekusa, Darnekusa Mala, Darnekusa Vela ?
Duranija white Brajdenica, Duranija Bijela ?
Glavinuša red Carnjenak, Glavanjuša, Okatac ?
Grk white Gark, Grk Bijeli, Grk Korculanski ?
Gustopupica Crna red Gustopup, Gustopupa, Gustopupka ?
Hrvatica red Hrvatica Crna, Jarbola, Carbonera ?
Kadarun red - ?
Kupusar red Crljenak Kupusar, Plavac Kupusar ?
Electoral Laska Bijela white Kortolaska, Kurtelasca ?
Lyutun red Ljutac, Plavac, Plavac Bedalovac ?
Malvasia di Lipari white Malvasiya Dubrovačka ?
Medna white Buboj, Bumba, Medna Bijela ?
Mladinka white Mladenka ?
Ninčuša red Lincuša, Mlinčevac, Vincuša ?
Pošip Crni red - ?
Prč white Čimavica, Parč, Prč Bijeli ?
Rotgipfler white Zelenac Slatki ?
Sémillon white Semijon ?
Suscan red Brajda Velika Crna, Susac, Suscan Crni ?
Vlaška white Maraškina Velog Zrna, Prejica ?


Wine categories: In August 2009, the EU wine market regulation became valid for all member countries with fundamental changes in wine designations and quality levels. There are the following new designations or quality levels (see also detailed under quality system):

ZOZP (Zaštićena Oznaka Zemljopisnog Podrijetla)
A country wine with a protected geographical indication.

ZOI (Zaštićena Oznaka Izvornosti)
A quality wine with a protected designation of origin.

Predicate wine / Predikatno Vino

Specific wine descriptions/types

  • Arhivsko Vino = archive wine (longer maturation in barrel and bottle)
  • Desertno Vino = sweet wine
  • Istrian Quality (IQ, reference to basic qualities of Istrian wines)
  • KZP (Kontroliranim Zemljopisnim Podrijetlom) = controlled geographical origin
  • Mlado Vino = young wine
  • Opolo = Rosé
  • Pjenušca = sparkling wine
  • Sortno Vino = varietal wine
  • Vrhunsko Vino = top wine, upscale quality wine

Map: From UN Cartographic Section, Public domain, Link
Vineyards: From Danilo Tic - originally posted to Flickr as Vineyards, CC BY-SA 2.0, Link

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