The German name "Wein" comes from the Latin "Vinum". Names in other languages are for example Indonesian Anggur; Hungarian Bor; Irish (gaelic) Fion; Georgian Ghvino; Arabic Khamr; Greek Oinos; Chinese Pútáojiǔ or Hóngjiǔ; Turkish Sarap; French Vin; Italian and Spanish Vino; Portuguese Vinho; Flemish Wijn; English Wine; Croatian, Polish and Russian Wino. Wine has been produced for at least 6,000 to perhaps 8,000 years, with the historical landscape of Mesopotamia, Transcaucasia and, according to the latest findings, south-east Anatolia in Turkey being assumed to be the cradle of viticulture. It is assumed that beer is even older, but of course this can no longer be determined. In any case, beer and wine are the earliest evidence of human drinking culture. In Greek and later Roman antiquity, a highly sophisticated wine culture developed.
According to EU regulation 1308/2013, the definition of wine is as follows: The term "wine" means the product obtained exclusively by total or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, including crushed grapes, or grape must. Accordingly, only where grapes are used may the product be described as wine. Other raw materials must appear in front of the label; for example, cider, fruit wine or currant wine.
The designations or wine quality classes valid since the introduction of the new EU wine market regulation from August 2009 are described in detail under the keyword quality system. Comprehensive information on wine law can be found under the keyword wine law. The country-specific wine law provisions are contained in the more than 100 wine producing countries. For a list of all countries, see the keywords Africa, Asia, Europe, South America, Tropics and USA.
A list of all aids and work in the vineyard during the annual vegetation cycle can be found under vineyard care. Under vine you will find all vine-specific keywords. The numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques as well as the types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by wine law are listed under vinification. In addition to the standard wine types, there are about 200 special wines or wine drinks; a list is given under special wines. With regard to the numerous ingredients in wine, see under Flavouring substances, total extract and agents used in winemaking, with regard to wine tasting, wine evaluation and wine description under Wine evaluation and wine appeal, and with regard to "suitable wine for eating" under Cooking wine and wine with food.