Incombustible, colourless and odourless, acidic gas (also carbon dioxide) with the molecular formula CO2. Colloquially, carbon dioxide is very often wrongly called carbonic acid. In solid form as dry ice, it is used as a coolant. The gas is produced during all combustion processes and also during the respiration of animal and human beings. It also occurs in volcanic rocks and at great depths.
In the atmosphere, carbon dioxide makes up only a tiny fraction of 0.039%, but this tiny amount is indispensable for all life because it is needed by plants during photosynthesis and oxygen is formed in the process. Since industrialisation, the proportion has increased by around 44% in connection with climate change and the associated greenhouse effect. The proportion is greater in the northern hemisphere (due to the larger land mass). The resulting extreme weather conditions with heat waves also have a negative impact on viticulture (see under decarbonisation).
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