In 1993, the independent states of Slovakia and the Czech Republic were formed from the former state of Czechoslovakia. Viticulture has a common history dating back to the Celts. In the 3rd century AD, under Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus (232-282), Roman legionaries advanced as far as southern Moravia and planted vineyards in what is now Znojemská (Znojem Land). Viticulture reached its first heyday in the 9th century at the time of the Great Moravian Empire. As in many other countries, the monasteries in particular exerted a positive influence because they needed mass wine. The Premonstratensian monastery of Louka near Znojmo, founded in 1190, was particularly prominent. This order was strongly influenced by the ideals of the Cistercians and, like them, practised professional viticulture. During the Middle Ages, there were flourishing vineyards around many towns and monasteries. Due to the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) there was a great decline. Mildew and phylloxera, which first appeared in Satov in 1890, did the rest.
In the 20th century, the vineyards were rebuilt with newly planted, international grape varieties. The vineyards in the Czech Republic are among the northern growing regions of Europe. In 2012, 470,000 hectolitres of wine were produced from 17,000 hectares of vineyards. There are 384 wine-growing municipalities with about 19,000 winegrowers with often smallest areas of less than one hectare. The Czech Republic is divided into two historical landscapes, Čechy (Bohemia) and Morava (Moravia), which also gave the names to the two wine-growing areas (with a total of six sub-areas). A continental climate prevails with a warm and dry growing season and dry, cool autumn. Two thirds of the production are white wines and one third are red wines. The 2010 grape variety list