Description for the taste of a wine (also acrid, acrid, sharp, cutting) with too much content of acids and possibly also alcohol in the context of a wine response, which is manifested by an unpleasant burning to painful sensation in the nose and palate. However, the impression is also given by the capsaicin contained in peppers (chilli, pepperoni) and the piperine contained in pepper, both of which are found particularly in red wines. A too high content of carbon dioxide, especially in red wine, can also cause a spicy impression. However, pungent is not purely a taste sensation, but a tactile (involving the sense of touch) or trigeminal sensation. Related terms of pungent are alcoholic, burnt, burning, warm, hot, peppery and acidic. The spectrum can range from intrusive to aggressive.