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pepper (GB)
poivre (F)
pepe (I)
piper (ES)
piper (PO)
peper (N)

Name for the plant black pepper or also the spice obtained from it. Depending on the time of harvest and further treatment, the peppercorns have different colours. Red pepper consists of completely ripe, unpeeled fruit. White pepper is fully ripe pepper that has been freed from the skin (the sharpest pepper). Green pepper is made from unripe, early-harvested fruit and is dried at high temperatures or soaked in salt water, which is why it retains its colour. Black pepper also consists of unripe fruit, but is dried naturally (very aromatic). Pepper is often confused with paprika, because this is also called pepperoni or peppers. To add to the confusion, the English "pepper" means "paprika" (the vegetable) and also "pepper". The plural "peppers" in turn always means "paprika" and never "pepper". The German "Paprika", borrowed from Hungarian, is derived from "Papar" (pepper).

Pfeffer - Früchte sowie Körner in grün, weiß und schwarz

Chili is the Mexican name for cayenne pepper, but it is not a pepper but a type of paprika. Paprika contains the substance capsaicin, pepper the substance piperine. Both cause a sharp sensation on the palate (not a pure taste sensation, but a trigeminal pain sensation). And for both spices certain aromatic substances are typical, for paprika iMethoxypyrazine, for pepper Linalool. Both paprika and pepper aromas are particularly common in red wines. Due to the confusing facts described above, the terms paprika (chili, pepperoni) and pepper should therefore be used with some caution when referring to wines, as the term peppery is often used for both.

Picture left: From Aruna in Wikipedia on Malayalam, CC BY-SA 3.0, link
Picture right: By Rainer Zenz from Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

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