Designation for a wine made from dark (blue to black) grape varieties. Red wine has a greater proportion of phenols and a smaller proportion of acids than white wine. The colour is produced by the anthocyanins contained mainly in the berry skins of dark grapes (i.e. not in the pulp). After destemming (removal of the grape skins) and light crushing, the classic must fermentation usually takes place in combination with a correspondingly long maceration period. By fermenting the must together with the skins and pulp, the colourings and tannins are extracted from the grape skins and seeds. Alternative or complementary processes include autovinification, carbonic maceration (carbonic acid mashing), mash heating, red fermentation and overpumping.