Designation for a wine made from dark (blue to black) grape varieties. Red wine has a greater proportion of phenols and a smaller proportion of acids than white wine. The colour is produced by the anthocyanins contained mainly in the berry skins of dark grapes (i.e. not in the pulp). After destemming (removal of the grape skins) and light crushing, the classic mash fermentation usually takes place. By fermenting the must together with the skins and pulp, the colourings and tannins are extracted from the berry skins and seeds. Alternative processes are autovinification, macération carbonique (carbonic maceration), mash heating, red fermentation and overpumping.