The colourless to yellowish organic compound is responsible for the pungent taste in pepper. When consumed, piperine exerts a trigeminal heat or pungency stimulus through its effect on specific receptors in the oral cavity. Actually it is a sensation of pain. The substance stimulates metabolism and secretion (saliva, digestive juices) and has an antimicrobial effect. The substance capsaicin contained in paprika has a similar effect. Both substances are often present in red wines. See also under taste, as well as regarding wine evaluation (tasting) or wine appeal (description) under hot (hot) and peppery.