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Piperine

The colourless to yellowish organic compound is responsible for the pungent taste in pepper. When consumed, piperine exerts a trigeminal heat or pungency stimulus through its effect on specific receptors in the oral cavity. Actually it is a sensation of pain. The substance stimulates metabolism and secretion (saliva, digestive juices) and has an antimicrobial effect. The substance capsaicin contained in paprika has a similar effect. Both substances are often present in red wines. See also under taste, as well as regarding wine evaluation (tasting) or wine appeal (description) under hot (hot) and peppery.

Pfeffer - Früchte sowie Körner in grün, weiß und schwarz

Picture left: From Aruna in Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, link
Picture right: By Rainer Zenz from Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link

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