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A cold downslope wind (also Mistrau, Magistral, Mestral, Maestrale); see under wind.

In meteorology, wind (Latin ventus for blowing) is a directional, stronger movement of air in the earth's atmosphere as one of the many factors in the weather or in the long-term weather patterns of the climate. The main cause of wind is spatial differences in air pressure distribution. Air particles move from the area with the higher air pressure (the high pressure area) to the area with the lower air pressure (the low pressure area) until the air pressure is equalised. The greater the difference between the air pressure values, the more violently the air masses flow into the area with the lower air pressure and the stronger the wind resulting from the air movement. Wind speeds of 62 kilometres per hour or more are referred to as a storm (wind force 8) and wind speeds of 118 kilometres per hour or more are referred to as a hurricane (wind force 12 = maximum). The wind direction is usually given in the form of a compass direction from which the wind is coming.

Winnd - Video

The video clip (click to view) clearly illustrates the physical causes of wind.

Types of wind

There are different types of wind, including localised winds such as sea and land breezes, downslope winds, mountain and valley winds, as well as large-scale winds such as trade winds, polar and westerly winds. In addition, winds are categorised according to the height of the contraction into surface winds, high-altitude winds and tubular jet streams. Whirlwinds are winds that blow in vortices or rotate. Strong air movements can have both positive and negative effects in viticulture. Lower wind strength helps to maintain the important humidity in the rows of vines, which is particularly important in dry areas. Moist sea winds can have a positive moderating influence in dry or low-precipitation areas such as Portugal, California and South Australia.


The Autan (lat. Altanus = "the one blowing from the high sea") is a south-easterly wind in south-west France in the region around Toulouse and in the Tarn department (e.g. in the Gaillac and Pays d'Oc areas). It is a continuation of the Marin, which blows along the Mediterranean coast. Its gusts can reach over 100 kilometres per hour. It is divided into the "Autan blanc" (cold, dry, fair weather wind) and the "Autan noir" (warm, humid wind that can bring rain and thunderstorms).


Bise (from the Germanic Bĭsōn = to storm around) is a cold, dry wind. Cool air usually flows southwards from a strong area of high pressure in the north or north-east of Europe. The wind occurs in southern France (in the Rhône valley, for example, in the Côte Rôtie area), Switzerland and Italy. It is usually associated with clear weather. However, it can also bring overcast weather as "bise noire", possibly combined with clouds and rain.


The gusty downslope wind bora (derived from Boreas, the god of the north winds; Croatian Bura, Slovenian Burja, Italian Bora scura = cold gust of wind, cold downpour) is particularly dangerous and occurs on various coasts on the Adriatic, mainly in winter. It affects Italy (see Carso), Slovenia (see Primorska), Montenegro and Croatia. With wind...

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Sigi Hiss

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Sigi Hiss
freier Autor und Weinberater (Fine, Vinum u.a.), Bad Krozingen

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