One of the many factors of the weather or in the long-term weather pattern of the climate. Strong air movements can have both positive and negative effects in the vineyards. Hot, dry winds, such as in Australia, or the scirocco blowing from the Sahara towards the Mediterranean and reaching southern European wine-growing areas can be dangerous. Equally feared are cold winds in valleys, such as the notorious Mistral on the southern Rhône. When the load is high, the vines can also experience wind stress, which results in lower yields, impaired growth of shoots, leaf area and grapes. As protection against the wind, the vines close the stomata in the leaves, which results in limited photosynthesis and thus later ripening of the grapes.