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See under Pergola.

This traditional form of training is a high-training system which is used for wine grapes and especially table grapes. This form has been used since ancient times. The picture below left is taken from the manual of the Corutti family in Verona around 1375, where horizontal (exactly horizontal or slightly sloping for optimum solar radiation) devices are placed between wooden, metal or concrete support posts at a height of two to four metres. These can be grid-like wooden frames, horizontal bars or wire frames. Depending on whether the shoots are pulled to one side or two sides, we also speak of single-arm or two-arm systems. The shoots form a more or less closed leaf canopy, Italian pergola. High yields can be achieved with this system. All maintenance work must be done from below, mechanised work is difficult.

Pergola - Holzpergel 1375 / Holzpergel heute

Today, the system is used under different names and in different variants, especially in southern countries. These include Afghanistan, Egypt, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Italy, Japan, Lebanon, Portugal and...

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