This traditional vine training is a high-picking system used for wine grapes and especially table gra pes. This form was already used in antiquity. The picture below on the left comes from the manual of the Corutti family in Verona around 1375. Horizontal devices (exactly horizontal or also slightly inclined for optimal sunlight) are placed between support poles made of wood, metal or concrete at a height of two to four metres. These can be lattice-like wooden frames, horizontal poles or wire frames. Depending on whether the shoots are pulled to one side or two sides, we also speak of one-armed or two-armed systems. The shoots form a more or less closed foliage roof, Italian pergola. High yields can be achieved with this system. All maintenance work has to be done from below, mechanised work is difficult.