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It was not until the middle of the 18th century that this Asian country began to have its own state history; before that, the area was a constant transit country for conquests (for example, Alexander the Great) and was ruled by various peoples. In the Hindu Kush (gorge-rich high mountains in the northeast), the sect of the Ishmaelites practised viticulture and there were vineyards along the Silk Road in the Hunza Valley. In the 16th century, Afghanistan was part of the Indian Mughal Empire. At that time, wine was supplied via the Silk Road to the court of Sultan Babur (1483-1530) in Agra (south-east of Delhi), who founded this empire. In the 19th century, viticulture lost its importance and was then only revived again at the end of the 1960s near Kabul. In 2012, the vineyards covered 62,000 hectares, but these were almost exclusively used for the production of table grapes and sultanas. However, due to the decades of warfare and the measures taken during the Taliban's rule, which criminalised the trade in wine in 1992, wine production has almost come to a standstill and has not recovered even after the fall of the Taliban regime

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