This refers to various methods of directing the growth of the vine in a very specific way. The vine is a climbing plant (liana) that cannot hold itself upright and therefore needs a climbing aid or support structure. The wild v ines mostly climb up young trees and grow upwards with them. For longer cultivation and for the possible use of machinery, the vines must keep their shape and not (which they would do) grow ever higher. Man therefore began thousands of years ago to shorten the shoots and to use artificial support devices such as stakes or sticks, frames and slats with taut cords or wires. A decisive measure during the winter break (dormant period) is pruning, where the one-year-old wood is pruned. Annual measures (winter pruning, summer pruning and foliage care) counteract the effects of apical dominance in order to also maintain the chosen training system.