In all denominations of Christianity (Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant), communion wine (also altar wine) plays a central role in somewhat different ways. The transformation of bread and wine into Christ's flesh and blood (transubstantiation), which is not only to be understood symbolically, goes back to the First Supper in the New Testament of the Bible. This is why wine has always played an important role in the Catholic Church and was (also) a motivation for special efforts in viticulture and winemaking. In Europe, the three monastic orders of the Benedictines, Carthusians and Cistercians in particular have earned great merits. During the conquest of the New World by Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors from the beginning of the 16th century, the planting of grapevines brought with them and the production of mass wine was also the beginning and impetus of the viticulture culture in North and South America. The monastic orders of the Franciscans in California and the Jesuits in Peru played a significant role in this. Many grape varieties still planted there today have their origins in this period, for example the historic Mission/Misión (Listán Prieto) and varieties of the Criolla group.