In viticulture these include the USA, South America, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa (one could also add Canada). These areas were opened up for viticulture from the beginning of the 16th century onwards by the great voyages of discovery. The colonists had above all a religious motivation for viticulture, namely to produce mass wine. On the North American continent, especially on the east coast, there were numerous wild vines growing in the forests, but specific cultivation or winemaking was unknown among the Native Americans. The colonists could not make drinkable wine from them because of the peculiarity of the American vines. The wines made from them had the strawberry aroma or foxton, which was unpleasant for European tastes. Therefore, European varieties were planted everywhere. But mostly this was unsuccessful, because phylloxera, fungal diseases such as mildew, other vine diseases and extreme climatic conditions caused most attempts to fail. The causes remained unknown for centuries.