After the conquest of the Inca Empire by the Conquistadores from 1531 to 1535 under Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541), the Spaniards Marquis Francesco de Caravantes and Hernando de Montenegro planted the first vines they had brought from the Canary Islands near Ica in 1547. Among them was the Spanish variety Listán Prieto (the historic Misión), which then caused a sensation in many South American countries. Peru was the first country in South America where viticulture was systematically practised; there were already 40,000 hectares of vines around the year 1560. Wine was even exported to Spain at that time. At that time, the country was called Alto Peru (High Peru) and was the core area of the Viceroyalty of New Castile. Until 1776, today's Bolivia was also part of it. From 1550, viticulture spread from here to Argentina. Phylloxera caused serious damage in Peru from 1888 onwards.