After the conquest of the Inca Empire by the Conquistadores from 1531 to 1535 under Francisco Pizarro (1478-1541), the Spanish Marquis Francesco de Caravantes and Hernando de Montenegro planted the first vines near Ica in 1547, which they had brought back from the Canary Islands. Among them was the Spanish variety Listán Prieto (the historical Misión), which then caused a sensation in many South American countries. Peru was the first country in South America to systematically cultivate vines, and by around 1560 there were already 40,000 hectares of vineyards. At that time wine was even exported to Spain. At that time the country was called Alto Peru (High Peru) and was the core area of the viceroyalty of New Castile. Until the year 1776, today's Bolivia was also part of it. From the year 1550 onwards, wine growing was spread from here to Argentina. The phylloxera caused heavy damage in Peru from the year 1888.