Common name in South America (also Criollo = Creole) for European grape varieties of the species Vitis vinifera, which were introduced in the form of seeds or cuttings by the Spanish conquistadores from the 16th century onwards, or developed locally through presumably natural crossbreeding. The colonisation of South America and with it the introduction of viticulture began in Mexico. In 1519, the Spanish conquistador Hernando Cortez (1485-1547) found native wild v ines growing on trees, but the Aztecs living here were unfamiliar with making alcohol or wine from them. The first European vines were probably planted by Cortez and wine was made from them (see also New World and USA). Mostly, however, the year 1540 is mentioned, in which Spanish Franciscan fathers in Mexico introduced varieties such as the historical Misión = Listán Prieto, but also others. One of the main motivations was the production of Mass wine. Peru, Chile and Argentina followed in the next 16 years.