The red grape variety comes from France. There are more than 80 synonyms that testify to its great age and worldwide distribution. The most important from a historical point of view, or still used today are Hermitage, Shiraz(Australia), Candive, Marsanne Noir, Petite Sirrah, Petite Syrah, Scyras, Sérène, Serine, Sira, Sirac, Sirah, Syra, Syrac(France); Balsamina, Neiretta Cunese, Neiretta del Monregalese, Neiretta del Rosso, Neiretta di Pinerolo, Neiretta di Saluzzo (Italy); Shiraz(South Africa); Zizak(Montenegro). Although it appears to have synonyms or morphological similarities, it should not be confused with the varieties Dureza, Durif (Petite Sirah), Mondeuse Noire, Persan (Sérine), Serina e Zeze or Shesh i Zi. The confusing and extremely complicated history of confusion concerning the three varieties Durif, Peloursin and Syrah in California in connection with the name Petite Si(y)rah is described in detail under the heading Durif.