The red grape variety originates from France. There are over 80 synonyms that testify to its great age and worldwide distribution. The most important from a historical point of view are Hermitage, Shiraz (Australia), Candive, Marsanne Noir, Petite Sirrah, Petite Syrah, Scyras, Sérène, Serine, Sira, Sirac, Sirah, Syra, Syrac (France); Balsamina, Neiretta Cunese, Neiretta del Monregalese, Neiretta del Rosso, Neiretta di Saluzzo, Zagarese (Italy); Neretto del Beinale (Spain); Shiraz (South Africa); Zizak (Montenegro). Despite seemingly suggestive synonyms or morphological similarities, it must not be confused with the varieties Dureza, Durif (Petite Sirah), Mondeuse Noire, Persan (Sérine), Serina e Zeze or Shesh i Zi. The confusing and extremely complicated history of confusion concerning the three varieties Durif, Peloursin and Syrah in California in connection with the name Petite Si(y)rah is described in detail under the keyword Durif.