Term for words or terms that have the same or similar meaning but are phonetically different. For example "winegrower, winemaker and winemaker" or "broom tavern, Buschenschank, Heckenwirtschaft, Heuriger and Straußwirtschaft" or "cooper and cooper" or "press and press" or "vinification, vinification, winemaking and vinification - but also pressing". However, words with exactly the same meaning are rare, often there is a difference in meaning or value. For example "head and head" or "home and dwelling" or "vine and grape". Especially with very old, widespread grape varieties, there are in extreme cases 30, 40, 50 and more local and regional synonyms for a single variety and its varieties. These are often groups of grape varieties, under which varieties (almost identical clones or mutants), but also similar, closely related but genotypically independent varieties are grouped together. Significant examples are Lambrusco, Malvasia, Muscat, Pinot, Refosco, Trebbiano and Vernaccia (each with a list).
Conversely, similar varieties or varieties that are common to a vineyard have sometimes been grouped under a single name(homonym), even though they are genotypically independent grape varieties. In a broader sense, synonyms used for several grape varieties can also be understood as homonyms at the same time. The line between varieties and clones is sometimes difficult to draw without DNA analysis. Synonyms should therefore be treated with great caution, especially in the case of old grape varieties. Often the same or similar synonyms were used for different grape varieties. This may, but does not necessarily indicate an identical identity or relationship. Not infrequently, names of clearly independent varieties are used as synonyms for others. These may be morphological similarities in grape shape, colour (e.g. roussette as part of the name) or shape of berries (e.g. olive, cherry), shoots and leaves as well as taste components (crunchy berries), characteristics (e.g. debtor) or origin (area, wine-growing region).
The multiple assignment of names is partly due to the fact that in the past many varieties were grown together in vineyards as a mixed set. Examples are Elbling, Gouais Blanc and Orléans. This often resulted in confusion and incorrect naming. Other inaccuracies and multiple use of names for different varieties are also due to inadequate records. In the 19th century, authors repeatedly tried to associate their local varieties with the varieties in international literature, often without direct knowledge of foreign varieties. For example, French varieties were simply assigned to similar varieties in Austria because they were thought to be identical.
Later it turned out that they are different varieties and the synonymous assignment is based on an original misnomer (pseudonym). Synonyms can therefore only ever be clues, and one needs additional variety descriptions, picture tables and vine plants to be able to check the correct assignment to a variety. Many viticulture institutes around the world are now using molecular genetic DNA analysis to try to clarify the many unanswered questions, but for this purpose living vine material is needed. However, this is often wrongly named and does not always represent the variety whose name it bears.
In the present work, an attempt has been made to the best of our knowledge and belief to indicate genotypic identity (i.e. "identical to vine variety XY") or to explicitly mention any remaining ambiguities or presumptions. Due to the diversity of grape varieties and the often confusing relationships between them, uncertainties or errors cannot be ruled out. However, not only in the case of grape varieties, but also in general with regard to viticulture, there are many synonyms for numerous terms, which vary not only from country to country, but often from region to region and place to place. This fact has been taken into account in this work and, for reasons of user-friendliness, the most frequent synonyms have been included for many terms as separate keywords with reference to the main name. On this subject, see also under Vine Systematics, Variety and Variety.