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Morphology

Term (grch. morphé = shape, form) for the study of forms. It forms a subfield in many branches of science. In biology, morphology is the study of the shape and structure of organisms (humans, animals, plants). It includes the classification of organisms according to their shape and the phenological changes during the vegetation cycle. In contrast, physiology (grých. phýsis = nature) is the study of the life processes with the photosynthesis process being central to plants. Morphology is the basis for taxonomy and the theory of evolution. The term was first coined in 1796 by Johann W. von Goethe (1749-1832) and independently of this in 1800 by the physiologist Karl Friedrich Burdach (1776-1847). In comparative morphology, the attempt is made to recognise certain characteristics of an organism in the variety of forms of individuals and to derive a classification on the basis of characteristic features of the basic organs. The three basic organs in plants are leaf, shoot axis (connects the other two parts) and root.

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