Indispensable component of support systems for many forms of vine training in the vineyard. The shoots are fastened to the wire frame (stapling), thus guiding them in a desired shape and supporting the upward climbing. Depending on the height of the trunk, one speaks of a low (picture below), a medium-high and a high form. This method largely replaced the traditional single-pole training (cane culture) with the high culture from the 1950s onwards. This vine training also enables mechanical processing in the vineyard, such as the use of a full harvester. The mostly galvanised wires are stretched between the vines at different heights. Depending on the load to be carried (grapes or foliage), different wire thicknesses are used. There are also movable staple wire holders on the support pillars, with which the height of the wires can be flexibly changed depending on the growth of the vines. See also complete lists under the two keywords vine training (systems) vineyard maintenance (activities).