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Spanish and Portuguese names for flavour; see there.

The sense of taste (also gustatory from the Latin gustare = to taste) serves to control the food we eat. Just like smell, it is one of the chemical senses. In a broader sense, the sense of taste is a complex interaction of the gustatory (tasting) sense of taste and the olfactory (smelling) sense of smell. This is supplemented by tactile or trigeminal tactile, pain and temperature information from the oral cavity. The latter include, for example, sensations of hotness and astringency (effect with tannin-rich red wines, which should not be confused with bitter). In the narrower sense, however, the taste consists of relatively few different flavours that are absorbed via the tongue and partly also via the pharyngeal mucosa.

Zunge mit den Geschmacksrichtungen und Rezeptoren

For a long time only four flavours were known, namely bitter, salty, sour and sweet. In the 1990s, umami (also fleshy, savoury, tasty) was defined and scientifically recognised as the fifth flavour. Finally, in 2011, the existence of receptors for fat, and therefore fatty, was identified in humans as a possible sixth flavour. Other possible taste qualities under discussion are "water" (tastes "like nothing" in pure form), metallic and alkaline. The perception of a taste substance depends differently on the quantity of the substance and is called the perception threshold (limit).

The receptor cells for...

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