The red grape variety is an interspecific new variety between American wild vines Aestivalis x Cinerea. Synonyms are Cunnigham, Long and Prince Edward. It contains genes from Vitis aestivalis
and Vitis cinerea
. The hybrid
was crossed in 1812 by the private breeder J. Cunningham. It is assigned to the special American vine species Vitis bourquina
. The variety was described by the German ampelographer Hermann Goethe
(1837-1911) in his 1876 publication "The most important American vines which resist the phylloxera with special consideration of their usability in Germany and Austria-Hungary". The variety has a perfect resistance against phylloxera
. In the past it was also cultivated on the Portuguese island of Madeira
and used there for this dessert wine.