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The state of Bosna i Hercegovina, formerly part of Yugoslavia, became independent in 1992. Organised viticulture began under Habsburg rule towards the end of the 19th century. In 1886, the wine and fruit growing office was founded in Gnojnice. The wines were very popular at the Viennese court, which is why these vineyards are still called "imperial vineyards" today. A temperate continental climate prevails, with hot summers and dry, cold winters.

In 2012, the vineyards covered 6,000 hectares, from which 56,000 hectolitres of wine were produced. These are located on the coast and north of Dubrovnik (Croatia) mainly around the towns of Citluk, Caoljina, Stolac and Mostar. The dominant varieties in terms of volume are the two autochthonous ones Žilavka (white with 60%) and Blatina (red with 35%). The remaining varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon, Krkosija, Plavac Mali and Syrah. The most famous area is Mostar (Engl. Old Bridge), which used to be the Islamic wine centre of Herzegovina. However, it was almost completely destroyed in the civil war of the 1990s.

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