One of the oldest training systems in viticulture (also called "Eintelstockerziehung", "Pfahlkultur" or "Stockkultur"), which was already used in antiquity by the Romans and was called "Phalange" (tied to the stake) at that time. In Austria, it was the most widespread cultivation method in viticulture until the 1950s. In this method, each individual vine is supported by a single stake (stalk). A very high planting density of 8,000 to 10,000 canes per hectare with a low trunk height was common. The development of the vines close to the ground caused increased disease and frost damage. Therefore, this form was gradually replaced by the high culture after the Second World War.