The French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) made outstanding achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, microbiology, agronomy and medicine. He was born in the western French town of Dôle in the department of Jura. In fact, in the very region where the famous Vin Jaune is produced in the Château-Chalon appellation. As early as 1857, he succeeded in proving the involvement of microorganisms in alcoholic fermentation. Until then, the process was unknown. In 1861, he recognised that yeasts consume much less sugar in the presence of oxygen or in an aerobic environment than in an anaerobic environment. In this context, we also speak of the "Pasteur effect" or "Crabtree effect". His numerous investigations of putrefaction and fermentation led him to the discovery of micro-organisms and in 1865 to a process that prevented decomposition, the pasteurisation named after him.