The French scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) achieved outstanding achievements in the fields of physics, chemistry, microbiology, agronomy and medicine. He was born in the western French town of Dôle in the department of Jura. It is in the very area where the famous Vin Jaune is produced in the Château-Chalon appellation. As early as 1857, he succeeded in proving the involvement of microorganisms in alcoholic fermentation. Until then the process was unknown. In 1861 he realised that yeasts consume much less sugar in the presence of oxygen or in an aerobic environment than in an anaerobic environment. In this context, the "Pasteur effect" or "Crabtree effect" is also referred to. His numerous studies of decay and fermentation led him to discover microorganisms and, in 1865, to a process to prevent decomposition, pasteurisation, which was named after him.