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Term for the biochemical metabolism of organic substances in the presence of oxygen. When animals or humans breathe, for example, the cells burn the energy component sugar to form carbon dioxide and water. For complete combustion, however, aerobic conditions are required, i.e. sufficient oxygen. During vinification, oxygen causes oxidative processes; see oxidative vinification and reductive vinification. Fermentation usually takes place mainly under anaerobic conditions (absence of oxygen). However, areobic conditions (presence of oxygen) are important before or at the beginning of fermentation, as the yeasts can only divide and multiply in an oxygen-rich environment. The scientist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) reported already in 1861 that yeasts consume much less sugar in an aerobic environment. In this context one speaks of the Crabtree effect, named after the English biochemist. The fermentation-like process of fermentation takes place under aerobic conditions.

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