The historical landscape at the lower course of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris in the south of today's Iraq is considered one of the cradles of viticulture and wine culture. Around 4000 BC, the area was settled by the Sumerians and was subsequently divided into numerous city-states. These were, for example, the cities of Haran, Kush, Ur (according to the A. T. of the Bible the home of Abraham) and Uruk. The legendary Sumerian king Gilgamesh probably ruled over the latter between 2750 and 2600 B.C. Under the famous king Hammurabi (1728-1686 B.C.), it reached its greatest expansion with the capital Babylon and encompassed almost all of Mesopotamia. In the 13th century B.C. Babylon fell to Assyria. The city of Babylon was completely destroyed in 689 BC by the Assyrian king Sanherib (705-681 BC), who made Nineveh the capital. The Babylonian king Nabupolossar (626-605 B.C.) overthrew the rule of the Assyrians and probably had the Tower of Babel built. Under his reign the New Baylonian Empire was founded.
His son Nebuchadnezzar II. (605-562 B.C.) created a great Babylonian empire, probably the famous Hanging Gardens of Semiramis were created under him - one of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World. This king subjugated Egypt, Syria and Palestine, destroyed Jerusalem in 586 BC and deported a large part of the Israelites to the so-called Babylonian Captivity. An inscription about Nebuchadnezzar was found in a temple in what is now the ruined city of Babylon, in which wine from eight different regions is mentioned, including a "drink of the mountains". The Greek historian Herodotus (482-425 B.C.) also visited Babylon on his travels, and according to his own account he still saw the Tower of Babel. He reports that wine was transported to Babylon on the Euphrates in palm wood barrels; the Greeks did not know wooden barrels for wine at that time (see also under Wine Vessels). In the year 539 BC, Babylon was then conquered by the Persian king Cyrus II (died 529 BC) and Persia was incorporated. See also under Ancient Wines.
Pictures: Bible science.com