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Ancient landscape between the mountains of Armenia, modern-day Iran (Persia) and the Syrian-Arabic desert. The present-day countries of Jordan, Lebanon and Syria in the Middle East were part of the immediate sphere of influence. The area included the north-east of Mesopotamia and the north of present-day Iraq. The entire area had a significant influence on the development of viticulture and wine culture. In the 17th century BC, Assyria fought for independence against the Babylonian king Hammurabi (1728-1686 BC), with Assur as its capital.

Under King Salmanassar I (1274-1245), Babylonia was conquered, extending Assyrian rule to the whole of Mesopotamia. The ruler founded the city of Kalhu near present-day Nimrud in northern Iraq around 1250 B.C. Under King Assurnasirpal II (884-858), Kalhu was elevated to the status of capital. Clay tablets were found in today's ruins on which the wine rations for the ruler's household of 6,000 people are listed - the higher the hierarchical rank, the greater the ration and quality.

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