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The former USSR republic (formerly Turkmenistan) and independent state since 1991 lies on the Caspian Sea and borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Iran. The ancient history of viticulture dates back to the 3rd century BC. Ancient Greek and Roman authors report cultivated vineyards in what is now the Murgab and Tejen valleys. However, the largely hot desert region of Karakum (Black Desert) with more than half of the country's area is only suitable for quality viticulture to a limited extent

Most of the vineyards are located south of the capital Asgabat on the border to Iran (70%), as well as around the city of Chardschou and in the province of Mary. Due to the dry, hot climate, most of the vineyards have to be irrigated artificially. In 2012, the vineyards covered 29,000 hectares, of which, however, only 390,00 hectolitres of wine were produced, mainly traditional sweet wines with a high alcohol content. Mainly table grapes and sultanas are produced. In the Kopetdag gorges there are still numerous wild vines, from which the autochthonous varieties Bayanshira, Kizil Sapak and Terbash probably descend

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