The former USSR republic and since 1991 independent state is located in Central Asia and borders on Afghanistan in the south, Uzbekistan in the west, Kyrgyzstan in the north and China in the east. There is evidence of viticulture in this country as early as the 4th century BC, when it was part of the empire of Alexander the Great. In the 8th century Islam reached the area, which led to a change in the grape varieties due to the associated ban on alcohol. Now table and raisin grapes were preferred. During the Middle Ages Tajikistan belonged to the Empire of Persia. In 1868 Tajikistan became a colony of Russia (see the history there). During the USSR times, in the 1920s, the small estates were merged into large kolkhozes and large-scale wine production was started. Wineries were built in the cities of Khujand (Leninabod), Punjakent and Qurghonteppa (Kurgan-Tjube).
Tajikistan is divided into three wine-growing zones: Khujand in the north, the Gissar valley in the centre and the Vakhsh valley in the south. The climate is continental with cold winters and hot summers. Mostly artificial irrigation and winter protection is required. For the production of wine, the international varieties Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Pinot Noir, Muscat Blanc, Riesling and Sauvignon Blanc as well as the autochthonous varieties Saperavi, Rkatsiteli, Bayanshira and Tagobi are cultivated. A speciality are strong sweet wines. In 2012, the vineyard area covered 44,000 hectares, of which only the infinitesimally small quantity of 2,000 hectolitres of wine was produced.