Term (also direct bear er, self-bearer, root vine) for a vine when the lower (rootstock) and upper part (scion) originate from the same plant. This means that no grafting has taken place. Worldwide, 90% of the vines used are grafted, because only grafted vines are resistant to phylloxera. However, there are individual countries, areas and wineries with ungrafted vineyards. Examples are the Greek island of Santorini, Cyprus, large areas in Chile and the Portuguese area of Colares. Prerequisites include a special soil type or high altitude vineyards such as in the Italian Aosta Valley in the Blanc de Morgex et de La Salle area. In many other countries, such as Germany, Austria and Switzerland, there are individual vineyards that are able to use ungrafted vines, at least in part, due to favourable conditions. See also under vineyard care.