Designation for modern grape varieties which, from the middle of the 19th century and increasingly in the 20th century, were produced with breeding intent specifically through the manual crossing of two selected parent grape varieties and through controlled core sowing of the sexually fertilised seeds and were selected, named and introduced to the market after several years of testing of the seedlings (the process is described under Crossing and Breeding ). Relatively little is known about the origin of the traditional old varieties, most of which were created by spontaneous (natural) but also by man-made manual crossings. Records are inaccurate, often contradictory, and ancestry can only be determined by extensive DNA analysis. For new breeds, on the other hand, the breeder, year of breeding, parents and tested characteristics are precisely documented. In addition to the demand for high-quality vines with certain quality characteristics, the main objectives are resistance to pests and diseases such as PIWI = fungal resistance, in order to be able to reduce the use of chemical pesticides.