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The region (Nafarroa in Basque) with the capital Pamplona is located in the north of Spain. It covers 10,385 km² and is the part of the historic kingdom of Navarre south of the Pyrenees. In the north, the main ridge of the Pyrenees forms the border with France. It borders the Basque Country to the west, Rioja to the south and Aragon to the east.


In 905, King Sancho I founded a separate kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroa in Basque) with Pamplona as its capital. In its heyday under Sancho III (990-1035), it stretched from Barcelona to Bordeaux on both sides of the Pyrenees. The first inhabitants were the Basques, whose influences can still be felt today. The Count of Champagne Thibaut I inherited the kingdom in 1234, after which it was administered by several French ruling lines. In 1512, the greater part of Upper Navarre south of the Pyrenees was annexed by Ferdinand II of Aragon and thus became Spanish. The son of Joan, Queen of Navarre, ascended the French throne as King Henry IV (1553-1610) in 1589 and incorporated the northern part into the Kingdom of France in 1607. The area has a very old wine-growing tradition. An ancient Roman cellar with a capacity of around 75,000 litres was found near the village of Funes.

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