Historical landscape on both sides of the Pyrenees on French and Spanish territory with a very independent population (around 600,000 in Spain and 90,000 in France), which is very tenacious in its culture. The Basque language (Euskara) is the only non-Indo-European language in Europe (although it has developed quite differently in the two countries). The two appellations Béarn and Irouléguy are located in the French area. In the north of Spain this is one of the 17 regions (Spanish País Vasco, Basque Euskadi = collection of the Basques) directly on the French border. In former times the Gascony in southwest France was also part of it (came to France in the 15th century). There are three provinces, the capital is Bilbao. In the region there are the three DO areas Chacolí de Alava, Chacolí de Guetaria and Chacolí de Vizcaya. A special feature is that vineyards in the very south of the province of Alava belong to the DO area Rioja (Rioja Alavesa).