One of the 17 regions of Spain (span. Aragón) with three provinces in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes the wide valley of the Ebro. It lies between Catalonia (east) and Navarre (west). In the 11th century, after the Moors pushed southwards, an independent kingdom was established here, which in the meantime included the Balearic Islands, Navarra and Sicily, and from the 12th century onwards also Catalonia. It existed up to the end of the 15th century and was then integrated with other areas into the Spanish Empire. Viticulture was already practised here since the 2nd century BC. In the north, on the border of the Pyrenees with France, a maritime climate prevails. By Spanish standards, there is relatively abundant rainfall. The most important white wine varieties are Macabeo, Garnacha Blanca, Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer and Moscatel(Muscat Blanc). The most important red wine varieties are Garnacha Tinta, Tempranillo, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah and Monastrell. The four DO areas of the region are Calatayud, Campo de Borja, Cariñena and Somontano.