The politician Sebastião José de Carvalho e Mello (1699-1782) was Prime Minister of Portugal during the reign of King José I (1714-1777) and the most important Portuguese statesman of the 18th century. In 1769, he was appointed "Marquês de Pombal" on account of his merits (this is the name under which he usually appears in sources). By means of rigorous measures, Pombal tried to strengthen national manufactures and overcome economic dependence on foreign countries, mainly England. For example, he broke the British monopoly on the port wine trade by founding the "Real Companhia Velha" and finally brought about the later end of the factory activities of the famous Factory House in the port city Porto. In 1756, at the instigation of Sebastião José de Carvalho e Mello, in order to protect the authenticity of port wine, the Portuguese region of Douro, named after the river, was defined in its boundaries and is thus considered one of the first origin-controlled wine regions in the world, along with the Chianti region in Tuscany.
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