Erosion and gouging (lat. erodere = to gnaw away) of the earth's surface by flowing water, wind or glaciers. Vineyards are often planted on slopes, so the earth's surface is constantly carried downhill by rain and wind. In order to stop the erosion, often a targeted cover crop is often carried out to give the earth's surface a foothold. In certain wine-growing areas such as Burgundy, Moselle and on the Rhine, the earth is carried back up the slope in baskets. On steep slopes, terraces with retaining walls prevent erosion. See also under soil type and vineyard management.