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Erosion and gouging (lat. erodere = to gnaw away) of the earth's surface by flowing water, wind or glaciers. Vineyards are often planted on slopes, so the earth's surface is constantly carried downhill by rain and wind. In order to stop erosion, a targeted cover crop is often made to give the earth's surface support. In some wine-growing areas such as Burgundy, Moselle and on the Rhine, the earth is carried back onto the slope in baskets. On steep slopes, terraces with retaining walls prevent erosion. See also under soil type and vineyard care.

Erosion - Amtelope Canyon/Arizona und Liechtensteinklamm Salzburg/Österreich

The picture on the left shows outwash at Antelope Canyon in the southwest of the USA near Page in the state of Arizona, which was formed by a periodically active flowing stream. The bizarre shapes have come about in interaction with the geological structure of the sandstone rocks. The picture on the right shows small-scale river erosion caused by water eddies. These are whirlpools (funnel-shaped hollows) in the rocky bedrock of a mountain stream in the Liechtensteinklamm gorge in St. Johann im Pongau (province of Salzburg, Austria).

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