The sum of all the various activities during the annual vegetation cycle in the vineyard with appropriate tools and systems to maintain physiologically ripe and healthy grapes as the basis for high-quality wines. A frequently used keyword is "The quality of the wine is decided already in the vineyard" with sometimes the addition "The measures in the cellar are limited to controlled(non-invasive) inactivity". It is not quite as simple as that, but there is no doubt that failures and mistakes in vineyard management in the cellar are difficult or impossible to correct.
Many producers worldwide are increasingly using environmentally friendly, sustainable forms of production such as organic (ecological) viticulture with the special forms of Biodynamic Viticulture and Bioenergetic Viticulture to protect the ecological balance, promote beneficial organisms and preserve biodiversity (species diversity). These standards provide strict guidelines regarding plant protection and the related control of vine enemies (pests) with restrictive to prohibited use of pesticides, as well as vine and soil care with permitted fertilizers.
The rules or regulations of the many organic farming associations are usually even more rigorous and strict than those laid down in EU regulations. Some of them concern not only vineyard management but also cellar technology. These include, for example, the production of organic wines, for which there have been EU directives for the wine itself since 2012. Some of these techniques are not uncontroversial and some of them are perhaps more in the realm of esotericism, such as taking into account the phases of the moon or the sound of music on the vines. Many of the techniques and related means listed below are alternative:
A video (click to view) shows the cycle in the vineyard of the Robert Weil Winery from pruning to thinning out. Complete lists of the numerous vinification measures and cellar techniques, as well as the various types of wine, sparkling wine and distillate regulated by wine law are included under the keyword vinification. Comprehensive information on wine law can be found under the keyword wine law.
Highly recommended books on vineyard care, which have been used extensively as sources, also with the kind permission of the Ulmer-Verlag:
Der Winzer 1 - Viticulture (Publisher Eugen Ulmer - Stuttgart)
1999: Edgar Müller, Erwin Kadisch, Gerd Schulze, Oswald Walg
2008: Edgar Müller, Oswald Walg, Hans-Peter Lipps (begr. E. Kadisch) - 3rd edition
Viticulture (Publisher Eugen Ulmer - 2000 Stuttgart) Ernst Vogt, Günter Schruft
Defoliation: Mathias Lutz
Greening: By Martin Mehofer - Own work, CC BY 3.0 at, Link
Education: By Jason DeRusha - o. p. Flickr as Mondavi, CC BY-SA 2.0, Link
Gibberellin: By Lee Spahr - Own Work, CC BY-SA 3.0, Link
Irrigation: Meyer Zwimpfer AG network team
Grape harvest: Château Pichon Baron - photo Vinexia.fr
Grape dividing: Robert Weil
Staple: DWI (German Wine Institute)