The sum of all the various activities during the annual vegetation cycle in the vineyard with appropriate tools and systems to maintain physiologically ripe and healthy grapes as the basis for high-quality wines. A frequently used keyword is "The quality of the wine is decided already in the vineyard" with sometimes the addition "The measures in the cellar are limited to controlled(non-invasive) inactivity". It is not quite as simple as that, but there is no doubt that failures and mistakes in vineyard management in the cellar are difficult or impossible to correct.
Many producers worldwide are increasingly using environmentally friendly, sustainable forms of production such as organic (ecological) viticulture with the special forms of Biodynamic Viticulture and Bioenergetic Viticulture to protect the ecological balance, promote beneficial organisms and preserve biodiversity (species diversity). These standards provide strict guidelines regarding plant protection and the related control of vine enemies (pests) with restrictive to prohibited use of pesticides, as well as vine and soil care with permitted fertilizers.