Term (also temperance) for moderation or abstinence, but in general usage this is understood particularly with regard to the consumption of alcohol. In Europe, temperance movements were founded in some countries from the beginning of the 19th century with the goal of total abstinence from alcohol. The "temperanceists" saw this as an approach to curing alcoholics as well as a social reforming measure, as they considered alcohol consumption to be the cause of the misery of the lower classes. The first movement emerged in Ireland in 1829. Two years later, the "British and Foreign Temperance Society" was founded in England, then the idea spread throughout Europe.
In the USA, a movement arose at the beginning of the 19th century that vehemently and rigorously opposed the consumption and distribution of alcohol of all kinds, not only hard drinks such as whisky, but also wine or beer. In 1826, it began to form under the name of the American Temperance Society. This association condemned alcohol consumption in principle and on principle - even occasional moderate drinking. By the 1830s, there were already more than 6,000 local temperance groups in the USA with over one million members.
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