The Italian pomologist Alberto Piròvano (1884-1973) was a professor at the research centre "Istituto di Frutticoltura ed Elettrogenetica di Roma" in Rome. He worked intensively on the subject of grapevine breeding, with a clear focus on table grapes. From 1912 onwards, he began experimentally irradiating the breeding plant material with X-rays and UV rays, as well as exposing them to magnetic fields, in order to bring about changes in the cell material and thus mutation. He can thus be described as an early manipulative genetic engineer. He published the breeding results under the title "La Mutazione Elettrica delle Specie Botaniche e la Disciplina dell'Ibridazione" (Genetic Modifications in Plants by Electrical Irradiation). He subsequently published around 50 dossiers on this subject. In 1923 Pirovano founded the "Research Institute for Fruit Trees"