Term (also genetic manipulation) for artificial methods of biotechnology that enable targeted interventions in the genetic material (genome) and thus in the biochemical control processes of living organisms. The product is a newly composed (recombinant) DNA that can be used to produce genetically modified organisms. The technique thus encompasses the modification and recomposition of DNA sequences in the test tube, but also in living organisms such as plants in particular, as well as the artificial introduction of DNA into living organisms. In viticulture, too, such methods are sometimes used quite specifically in grapevine breeding. This is by no means entirely new, as the Italian pomologist Alberto Piròvano (1884-1973) was the first to irradiate grapevines with UV light at the research centre in Rome as early as 1912 in order to deliberately induce changes in the cell material.