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Collective term (lat. dye) for numerous, fine-grained dyes in cells of human, animal and plant tissues that absorb light in the visible spectral range. They belong to the large group of phenols. Pigments have important metabolic-physiological functions in addition to their colouring, which serves, among other things, to protect against UV light. One example is chlorophyll in photosynthesis. Pigments are also found in grapes and then in the wine made from them in the form of carotenoids and flavonoids. During the bottle-ageing of a wine, larger particles develop through polymerisation (caking) of pigments and other substances, which are then precipitated as a deposit (sediment). See also under anthocyanins.

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