This fermentation technique is the oldest and still the most widespread method for the production of red wine. Usually, destemming takes place first to separate the berries from the grape skeletons. The berries are crushed so that their juice can escape. In southern countries, barefoot crushing is still used to gently break open the berries. This mixture of juice and pulp is called mash. The question of pure or spontaneous fermentation plays a far less important role than with white wine, since considerably more vineyard yeasts get into the mash with the skins. This means that a good fermentation process (fully fermented) is also possible using natural yeasts. Today's trend is towards achieving a wine rich in colour with Gerbstoffetannins and tannins that are as harmonious as possible.