Summarising term for all the steps in the process from fermentation to bottling of a wine. It can also be used to describe the sub-process Drum removal respectively Barrique maturation ...or should be meant by that. One can also include the common practice of storing the wine in the bottle for some time before marketing to give it a certain maturity. The process of bottle-ageing until the wine is ready to drink can take many years or even decades for top products, but is usually no longer counted as ageing. In connection with the contact with oxygen during fermentation and the subsequent ageing in barrels or stainless steel tanks, a distinction is made between oxidative expansion (with contact) and reductive expansion (without or greatly reduced contact with oxygen).